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ffl of ^Rines. 


(J. M. BELL, Director. i 


no. 3 













To accompany BulletirvNS 3,Parapaja Subdivision Jiaratnea Division, Nelson Land. District 

To accompany Bulletin dY" 3, Parapara Subdivision Jiaramea, Divi si on.JVct 'son Land District 

Reads shewn, thus 

Tracks ., „_ ==ii - ; -=... 

Triacncmetr-ical Stations „ „ _ C @i6ii' 

Edges of Bush _, „ „_ T&ryO^c 

Swamp ,, ,, _ jiJ^Jt- 

Water Races „ 

Outcrops with observed strike and dip A 
Workings or Mines #, 

Compiled from, data obtained from the Lands and Survey Department, 
=j and surveys executed byJKBell.BPQr^nlj£XM.Qraham..EJ.Welh. frEdeC Clarke, 

of the Geological Survey Branch of the Mines Department. 


■ Reference to Geolo g ical Colours and S igns - 


...... \ Probably Ordovklan I ^iBlllne comply 

Series 1 '"' earllef \ Crystalline schists and quartlltea .... 

1 Ordoticlan .... ArglllHes, graunraekes and quarttltes 

i I. (a.) Quartiosa conglomerates 
(h.) Sandstones, shales, ooal-s< 
Oamaru) „.-„..„ I glomerate* 

Series \ M ' ocene ] 2. LmesHm. sometimes 
\3. Blue and yellow clays 

Older I pf, ° bab 'y mainly Pleistocene \ Old r, 
' I part younger ' I Qran 


Ultra basic UB H 
Basic and semi-bastc, . Wkms% 
Aeldlc 1 





Compdedqnddra'mbvG.EEhrni .\ '_r f '-■ ] 7 

To accompany Bulletin if° 3.Parapara Subdivisicn,KarameaDivisicn,,lfelscnLand District. 

To accompany Bulletin iV» ' 3, Para para Subciiviswn.KarajneaDivisicji.NclsonLand District 

To accompany Bulletin N$ 3.Parapaia Subdivision, Karnmea Divisicn.Nelson.Land l>i stria 

mmmmtm mmmm 

- Section alon g Line D E F, Aorere and Waitapu Survey Districts - 

y. , .y. 

- Section alon £ Line A B, Aorere Survey District 


Section alon fe Line B C , Waitapu Survey District - 



Section alon g Line GH, Washbourn Block , Waita p u Surve y District 

Natural Scale 

Reference to Geological colours 


Probably Qrdoilclan 

I Crystalling complex carbonates 
Crystalline schists and ouartzltts .... 
Argitlites, grauwackes and quartzltes 

Drawn by H.J. Crawford, June 1907 

1. (a.) Quartiosa conglomerates 
(b.) Sandstones, shahs, coal- 


2. Limestone, 

3. Blue and yellow cla/s 


Ultra basic 
Basic & scir 

: wmm 


.... i. 


Does not occur in sectional maps. 

By Authority: John Mackay, Oou 

To accompany Bulletin, If" 3, Par apai a $ubchvisioii,KaramecbDivi si 'vtv, Nelson. Land >Di st rid 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



Geological Survey Office, 

Wellington, 1st July, 1907. 

Sik — 

1 have the honour to submit herewith Bulletin No. 3 (new series) 
of the New Zealand Geological Survey. 

The volume comprises 111 pages of letterpress. It oontains fourteen 
maps and three sheets of sections, and is illustrated by twenty-six plates. 

I have the honour to be, 

\ our obedient sen ant, 

•I. M. BELL, 

Hon. James McGowan, 

Minister of Mines, 



The present publication, Bulletin No. 3, covers the detailed work carried 
on by the New Zealand Geological Survey in the Parapara subdivision, 
Karamea, Nelson, from September, lUUb\ to April, 1907. 

The work has been directly under my supervision. 1 have had as 
geological assistants Mr Ernest John Herbert Webb and Mr. Edward 
de Courcy Clarke, while Mr. Reginald Palmer Greville and Mr. Kenneth 
Montrose Graham were my topographical assistants. 

The previous geological and mineral investigations made by Baron 

Von Hochstetter, Sir James Sector, Professor Cox, Professor Park, Mr. 

Alexander McKay, and Mr. George -J. Binns have greatly facilitated 
our work in this area. 

It is pleasing to record that much assistance was given us by the 
people in the area during the progress of our work, but as they are so 
numerous it is impossible here to enumerate them in detail. 

Nearly all the analyses in this bulletin woe done under the direction 
of Dr. J. S. Maclaurin, Government Analyst, to whom we are much 
indebted in man)' ways. 


Director Geological Survey. 



Letter of Transmittal 

Preface by James Mackintosh Bell, Director New Zealand Geological Survey 



Chapter I. — General Information. 


Economic reasons for the work in Karamea 

Area described in this bulletin 

Plan of conducting work 


Flora .. 


1 Timber 


1 Soil and agriculture 


2 Climate 


2 Scenery 


2 Literature 

. 8 




Means of communication 

Chapter II. — Culture. 

12 Water-races 

12 History of mining 

L3 System of gold-mining 


Sequence of formations 
Geological history 

Chapter III. — Outline of the Geolouy. 

"20 General account of the structure of the several forma- 
. . - 1 tions 


(General physiographic features 

The old land 

The uplands 

The modern coastal and Hood plains 

The coast-line 


(1.) The West Coast system 
(2.) The Aorere River system . . 

Chapter IV. — Physical (Jeography. 

29 Watercourses — eontin m d. 

(3.) The Golden Kay system . 
(4.) The Takaka River system 

Swam i is 

i Saves 

Special glacial features . . 



Chapter V 


General distribution and structure 



(1.) The complex carbonates 
(2.) The cherty quartzites 
(3.) The schists : 

(a.) Biotite schists 
(6.) Muscovite schists 
(c.) Graphite schists 

— The Aorere Series. 

33 Petrology — continued. 

34 (8.) The schists — continued. 

34 (d.) Chlorite schists .. ..42 

37 (e.) Mica-carbonate schists . . 42 

37 (/.) Amphibolites .. .. ..42 

39 (4.) Phyllites .. .. ..43 

41 (5.) Argillites, grauwackes. and sandstone-quartz- 

41 ites . . . . 44 

41 (6.) Friction breccias . . .. .. ..44 


Age and correlation 
Distribution and Structure 

(1.) The conglomerates 

Chapter VI 

— The Hautiri Series. 
45 Petrology — continued. 


(2.) The argillites and grauwackes 
Special area 



(■hatter VTT. — The Oamaru Series. 

General distribution 
General structure 

Petrology and description of special areas 
(1.) (a) The quartzose conglomerate 
(6) Conglomerates, shales with coal 







seams, and 


Petrology and description of special areas — continued 

(2.) Limestone 

(3.) Blue and yellow clays 
Special features of economic importance 






Chapter VIII. — Older and Newer I) bris. 

Content and age of the older debris 

I >istribution of the older debris 

< 'ontent, age, and distribution of the newer debris 

Marine deposits 

Estuarine deposits 

Fluviatile deposits 


Content, age, and distribution of the newer debris — ctd. 

Lacustrine deposits . . . . . . 64 

Cave deposits . . . . 64 

Talus and wind-blown sand . . . . 64 

Auriferous leads in the older and newer debris . . 64 



(1.) Ultra-basic igneous rocks 
Age and distribution 
(2.) Basic and semi-basic igneous 
Age and distribution 

(1.) Epidote rocks 
(2.) Porphyrites 
(3.) Diabases . . 
(4.) Gabbros .. 
Contact phenomena 
Acidic rocks 

. 66 

. 66 

. 66 

. 67 


. 68 
. 68 
. 68 
. 68 
. 69 
. 70 
. 70 
. 70 
. 70 

IX. — Igneous Bocks. 

Acidic rocks — continued. 

(1.) Muscovite granites 
(2.) Granites 
(3.) Pegmatites 
(4.) Granitites 
(5.) Syenites 
(6.) Porphyries 
Contact phenomena . . 
Economic possibilities of the igneous rocks 


Quality of the ore 
Origin of the ore 
Washbourn Block 
Tukurua Block 
Onakaka Block . . 
Pariwhakaoho area 
Minor occurrences of ore 

Chapter X. 
75 I 


Minor occurrences of ore — continued. 
Glen Gyle 
Fletcher Creek 

Track from Bainham to the Castles 
Appo's Gully and Appo"s Flat 
Copperstain Creek 
Miscellaneous occurrences 

Utilisation of the iron-ores 



Chapter XL — Quartz Veins and other Mineralised Zones of the Paratara Subdivision. 

Special areas 

(e.) Veins of Little Boulder River 

89 Special areas — continued. 


(a.) Veins in the vicinity of the Golden Ridge . . 89 
(b.) Veins of the Johnston's United to Red Hill 

mineral belt . . . . . . 94 

(c.) Veins of the Richmond Hill area . . 96 

(d.) Veins of the Slate River and its tributaries .. 97 

(/.) Veins of Boulder River . . . . . . 99 

(g.) Veins of the Quartz Ranges . . 99 

(h.) Veins of the Kaituna River and its tributaries 100 

(i.) Minor veins of the Parapara River . . 100 
(/.) Ore-occurrence of the Pariwhakaoho River 

Valley . . . . 100 

.. 100 

99 Age and origin of quartz veins 

Chapter XII. — Resume of the Economic Possibilities of the Pabapara Subdivision 
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 102 Building and ornamental stones . . 

Iron-ore . . . . . . . . . . 102 Clays 

Metalliferous veins and deposits other than iron-ore . . 103 Lime and cement 
Alluvial gold .. .. .. ..103 Coal .. 





Panoramic view of Parapara 
I. Mountains south-east of Boulder Lake 

Sloping uplands near Rocky River, with Lead Hill in the background 

II The Uplands south-east of Aorere River looking towards Lead Hill 
View of Aorere River, showing uplands 

III. View of Otere Stream, showing Hood plain, upland terraces, and old land 
Cliffs of el iv, west shore of Golden Bay 

IV. Parapara Inlet, from north-western side 

V. Aorere River, near Eliot's house 

Miocene strata, Aorere River, two miles above Bainham 

VI. [gneous rocks in gorge, Aorere River 
Rock-bound .orge, Aorere River 

Vll. Valley of Boulder River, looking towards Aorere Kiwi 
Glaciated rocks, near Boulder Lake 

VIII. Graptolites of the Aorere Series 

IX. View of Boulder Like, showing ice-worn granite 

\ N'orthern end of Boulder Lake 
Southern end of Boulder Lake 

XI. View of Lead Hill from Brown Com Hi 

Ice-worn slopes on Lead Hill Like Clara in Eor^round 

XII. Darby Pond, a mountain tarn near Boulder Lake 
Roi-lui lannionni't i, near Boulder Lake .. 

\IIl. Macro-photograph of crystalline complex carbonate 

XIV. Micro-photograph of ohlorite-feldspar-quartz Bchisl 

XV. Mioro-photograph of amphibolite 

\\1. Crenulated graphite sohisl 

men of phyllite, mowing bedded plane* and cleavages, from Berl Greek 

XVII. Waitapu Wharf 

Miocene strata near Rookvilli 

Will. View of valley "t Aorere Rivei ibo\e Kookville, Bhowing limestone but* 
\ 1 \. Gh • • : - cverlying banded phyllites, Quartz Ranges Bluioing Company's claim 
XX. Hydraulic sluicing, Quart/ R ogee Sluicing Company's claim 
XXI. View of Brown Cow EUdge, from southern end of Boulder Lake, showing old moraine 
XXII. Micro- photograph of quartz and limonite rock 
\\III. Side of gorge cut through iron-deposit, Waahbourn < reek 

Roa, or giant kiwi [Apteryi haasti), Boulder Lake 
\\l\. Iron-ore in Washbourn Creek bed 

Outcrop of iron-ore, Washbourn Block 

\\V. Iron-ore, Washbourn Block, near I'.uut Mill 
Hill of iron-ore, Washbourn Block 

\ W I Iron-ore, Gnakaka Block, near Hidden Treasure Track 
Iron-ore in Washbourn Creek \ 

Facing Page 











7! I 



Table showing Proposed Classifications of Parapaka Formations 

Facing Page 


1. Sketch of corrugations of phyllite, Boulder River 

2. Cross-section of Golden Ridge, showing relative positions ot mines 

ii— Kararnea. 



1. New Zealand, showing land districts and divisions 

2. Karamea division, showing survey districts . . 

3. Topographical and geological map of Boulder Lake and vicinity 

4. Site of proposed wharf at Tukurua . . 

5. Map of Golden Ridge area . . 

6. Plan of workings in Aorangi "Gold-mine 

7. Map of Washboum Block, showing outcrops of iron-ore 

8. Topographical map of Waitapu Survey District 

9. Topographical map of Aorere Survey District 

10. Geological map of Waitapu Survey District . . 

11. Geological map of Aorere Survey District 

Facing Page 






In portfolio. 


1. Cross-sections of principal streams 

2. Cross-section of Boulder Lake, &c. 

3. Geological sections . . 

(a.) Section along line DEF, Aorere and Waitapu Survey Districts. 

(b.) Section along line A B, Aorere Survey District. 

(c.) Section along line B C, Waitapu Survey District. 

(d. ) Section along lino ('• H, Washboum Block, Waitapu Survey District. 

Facing Page 


In portfolio. 

By Authority : John Uackay, Governmtnt Pnnttr. 

T A S M A N 




Districts dealt with in BuRetWsN$3 
coloured* thus | | 

10 5 O 

H H M M M I- 




£y Authority : John Mackay, Government Printer. 

Panoramic View of Parapara, booking South from Eastern Shore of Parapara Inlet, showing Tukurua Point and Locality of the Iron-ore Deposit. 

(ieo. Bulletin No. 5.] 


Panoramic View of Parapara, 1,00. 

tleo. Bulletin No. 5.] 











Economic Reasons for the Work in 



Soil and Agriculture 

Area described in this Bulletin 



Plan of conducting Work 





Literature . . 



Page. Page 



The Karamea Division occupies the north-western corner of the old Provincial District of Nelson. 
Its most northern point, Cape Farewell, which is approximately in longitude 172° 43' east, latitude 
•10° 30' south, forms also the most northern land in the South Island of New Zealand. The Division 
is roughly triangular in shape, and is surrounded on two sides by the ocean — the quiet waters of Tasman 
and Golden Bays on the east, and the storm-swept expanse of the Taeniae Sea oil the west. Its 
southern boundary is an imaginary line starting from a point two and a quarter miles south of the 
mouth of the Karamea ltiver, whence it runs due east for twenty-five and a half miles, then north 
for two miles, then irregularly but in general to the east for a further twenty-seven miles, finally 
emerging on the shore of Tasman Bay opposite Rabbit Island. 

Karamea is an area rich in geological phenomena of scientific, popular, and economic interest. 
Its bush-clad mountains are supposed to be rich in mineral wealth ; its wild, little-explored 
valleys exhibit geological sections representing a wide range in time ; its rugged hills and uplands 
show moraine-dammed tarns carved by glaciers long since departed. 

Economic Reasons for the Work in Karamea. 

Economic interest in the Karamea Division centres around the deposit of iron-ore situated on 
the shores of Parapara Inlet, an indentation in the coast-lino of Golden Bay. This great mineral 
1 — Karamea. 


feature is by no means the only one of utilitarian value in the area, and others may be enumerated 
as follows : — 

(1.) The coal-seams, for the most part of unknown lateral extent, exposed in the extensive 

beds of older Tertiary strata. 
(2.) The metalliferous veins occurring in several parts of the district. Among these may 
be mentioned the quartz reefs at the Golden Ridge and Golden Blocks Mines, near 
West Wanganui Inlet, and the formerly very valuable Johnston's United Reef, near 
the Slate River. 
(3.) The alluvial goldfields, situated principally in the valley of the Aorere River, and 
formerly of much greater importance than at present. 
For the good of the mining industry of the colony a careful investigation by the Geological Survey 
of the several mineral features just detailed seemed very desirable. Furthermore, it was hoped 
that a thorough examination of the little-known parts of the district might lead to the discovery of 
valuable metalliferous deposits. The careful scrutiny of the economic mineral features also neces- 
sitated a study of every phase of the geology of the area. 

Area described en this Bulletin. 

The first portion of the Karamea Division to be geologically surveyed comprises the Survey 
Districts of Aorere and Waitapu, which represent what is called the Parapara Subdivision. Initial 
operations were commenced in this part of the country because it contained the most salient economic 
mineral feature in the whole Karamea Division — namely, the Parapara iron-deposit. The subdivision 
represents a total area of about 243^ square miles, of which 156J square miles is in the Aorere Survey 
District, and approximately 87J square miles in the Waitapu Survey District. The whole embraces 
a section of country twenty-five miles from east to west, and twelve and a half miles from north to 
south, stretching from the Tata Islands in Golden Bay almost to the shores of the Tasman Sea. The 
central point of this area has an approximate latitude of 40° 48' S., and longitude of 172° 40' E. 

Plan of conducting Work. 

The work in the Parapara subdivision was carried out with great care, and no effort was spared 
to make it as accurate as possible. Though many of the main features on the topographical maps 
available to the writers were correctly mapped, the smaller features, especially in the rugged interior 
of the country, were often inadequately or inaccurately indicated. Consequently a great deal of purely 
topographical work had to be undertaken before the geological data could be mapped. With this 
end in view, almost every watercourse of any size was ascended, and every ridge traversed. 

Where deposits of economic minerals either known before the inauguration of the survey or 
discovered during its progress occur, the survey was prosecuted in greater detail than where no features 
of utilitarian value exist. These surveys were made especially elaborate in the neighbourhood of the 
deposit of iron-ore at Parapara. In all the larger streams, and along many of the smaller watercourses 
as well, the distances were obtained by chaining, while on the ridges points were frequently fixed 
by triangulation. In the unimportant smaller streams the distances were sometimes measured by 
pacing — a rough method, but one sufficiently accurate for the end in view. On the smaller streams 
the geological and topographical work was carried out contemporaneously, but on the larger streams 
and on most of the ridges it was generally found more convenient to conduct the topographical work 
in advance. 


The Cape Farewell Peninsula, with its rugged bush-clad hills and steep-walled gorges, presents 
an area of country in which the native forms of life — both plant and animal — will long make a firm 
stand against foreign intruders. Excepting on the lowlands which border the rivers and the^sea- 


coast, and on the ridges which have offered means of access into the interior, the native fauna and 
flora are practically in their pristine condition. 

The New Zealand fauna is too well known to require a lengthy dissertation in this Bulletin. As 
elsewhere in New Zealand, the complete absence of the higher vertebrates, coupled with the retiring 
habits of the lower forms of animal life, gives that lifeless silence which so often becomes oppressive. 
Nevertheless, the melodious whistles and harsh screams of the kaka [Nestor meridionalis), and the 
mellifluous notes of the tui (Prosthemadera novcB-zealandus) and bell-bird (Anthornis melanura), may 
usually be heard in the early morning and in the evening twilight. The weird cry of the ruru or more- 
pork (Ninox novcB'Zealandice) is invariably heard alter dusk. The shrill note of the female kiwi and 
the deeper response of her mat" break the stillness of the night. These are probably usually of the 
smaller variety (Apteryx australis), but at Boulder Lake the larger species (.1. haasti) has been found 
(see Plate XXIII). The inquisitive weka (Ocydromus australis) is ubiquitous. One sees him on the 
sea-eoast and on the most lofty ridges. The beautiful white-breasted native pigeon (Hetniphaga novae- 
zealandice) is still fairly abundant, especially in the secluded valleys. The kakapo, or ground-parrot 
(Stringops habropdlus), is occasionally encountered. 

Amongst water-birds, shags are abundant along the sea-coast, and are sometimes met with even 
in the interior. The beautiful blue duck (Hymenolojtnus malacorhynchus) haunts the deep pools of 
the mountain-streams, while its sombre-coloured congener, the grey duck (Anas superciliosa), 
is more commonly seen. Robins (Miro cUbifrons), wrens (Xenictts longipes), blight-birds (Zosterops 
ecBruleseent), black and pied Eantails (Rhipidura fuliginosa and II. flabellifera) occasionally greet the 
traveller through the forest. 

Eels are plentiful in most of tin- streams. One or more individuals of the mountain-trout may 
nearly always be found even in isolated pools, whither they must have been conveyed in the egg-form 
on the feet of water-birds. 

Amongst insects there is the usual unwelcome profusion «it sand-flies, blow-flies, and mosquitoes, 
the last, however, only on the low ground. Besides these, the curious " stick "* insects and the wetas 
are widelj distributed, and there is also a multitude <.l more insignificant forms. 

Fresh-water crayfish are common in most streams. Among the most remarkable animals are 
the land-snails (Paryphanta hochstetteri).* A small variety is common in those areas where ancient 
crystalline rocks outcrop, while the large variety, which often exceeds 1.1 in. in diameter, is of rare 
occurrence in the same localities. 

Of foreign animals very few have become really naturalised. Weasels are occasionally seen, wild 
pigs are fairly plentiful ill the West Wanganui district, and sheep (the descendants of a flock main- 
tained in years gone by in the open alpine country at the head of Slate River) seem to flourish. Wild 
goats are now and then encountered, especially on the eastern -lopes ,,f Walker Ridge, and red deer 
are occasionally seen Quail abound in all the lower country. Trout are abundant in the larger 
streams, and mow to a considerable size. 

I' I, ..HA. 

The variety of plants to be found in the Parapara subdivision is probably as great as in any other 
area of equal size in the colony. Here there is a mingling of North and South Island forms, due to 
the geographical position of the area. The height of the mountains, also, is sufficient to bring their 
summits within the alpine zone. Thus, in ascending from the sea-coast to the top of the Douglas 
Range, one passes successively through four distinct zones of vegetation — the lower beech-forest zone, 
the upper beech-forest zone, the >ubalpiiie zone, and the alpine zone. 

Near sea-level is the lower beech-forest zone, where forms characteristic of the North rather than 
of the South Island are conspicuous. It contains as predominant forest -treest Fagus fusca and 
F. menziesii. Other characteristic plants are| Clematis mdivisa, Drimys colorata, D. asillaris, Melicytus 
remiflortu (mahoe), Pittosporum eugenioides (tarata), P. tenuifolium (kohuhu), Hoheria populnen (the 

• See illustration in Hochstetter's " New Zealand." p. Ifl0. 

t The most important forest-trees growing in the different /ones are enumerated in the section " Timber," p. 5. 

{The genera are arranged according t<> the sequence in Cheeeenian's " Manual of the Xew Zealand Flora." 

1* — Kaiamea. 

North Island variety — hohere ; lacebark), Aristotelia racemosa (makomako ; wineberrv), Pennantia 
corymbosa (kaikomako). Alectryon excelsum (titoki), Coriaria ruscifolia (tutu), Rubus australis (tataramoa : 
bush-lawyer), R. schmidelioides, Carpodetus serratus (piripiriwhata), Weinmannia racemosa (towai. 
kamahi), Fuchsia excorticata (kotukutuku; native fuchsia), Panax arboreum (whauwhaupaku), 
P. simplex (haumakaroa), Pseudopanax crassifolium (lancewood), Scheffkra diqitata (five-finger), 
Griselinia littoralis fbroadleaf), G. lucida (puka), Alseuosmia macrophylla. Coprosma joptidissima 
(karamu), C. grandifolia (kanono, manono), Olearia cunninghamii (heketara), Dracophyttuvi latifoliuw 
(neinei), Myrsine urvillei (mapau), Parsonsia heterophyUa (kaiku). Muehlenbeckia australis, Hedycarya 
arborea (porokaiwhiri), Rhipogonum scandens (supplejack). Rhopalostylis sapida (nikau), Freycinetia 
banksii (kiokio). 

The lower beech-forest zone is an area of dense growth, but, as is to be expected from 
the comparatively high latitude of the Parapara subdivision, the foregoing plant-association 
is well marked only in warm, moist, and sheltered places — for example, in valleys with a northerly 

On the upland terraces — flanking the valleys of the Aorere and the Takaka, and extending between 
them as well — the light and often swampy ground supports a specialised vegetation. The most abundant 
plants are sedges and rushes, with stunted manuka {Leptospermum scoparium and L. ericoides), the 
heath-like Epacris pauciflora and Leucopogon fasciculatus , Gaultheria antipoda, Leucopogon fraseri, 
Dracophyllum urvilleanum (probably also D. longifolium), the curious and often beautiful insectivorous 
sundew (Drosera arcturi), the ground-orchid (Thelymitra longifolia), and the liliaceous Herpolirion novce- 
zealandice. Other common plants are Haloragis depressa, H. micrantha, Lobelia anceps, Gleichenia 
dicarpa, and Schizcea bifida. This plant-association is also found on the ridge beyond Golden Gully, 
about 2,000 ft. high, which was cleared of bush in the days of the gold rush. 

As one ascends to higher altitudes the North Island forms gradually disappear, until at a height 
of about 2,500 ft. the forest is composed almost entirely of beech and South Island rata (Metrosideros 
florida). The plant-association found at this level has been called the upper beech-forest zone. Here 
undergrowth is scanty ; the ground is thickly covered with mosses and the closely allied Jungerma- 
niacese, which are specially adapted for absorbing and retaining rain-water — a modification necessitated 
by the absence of a constant supply of surface water. On this carpet of moss the beautiful white flowers 
of Libertia ixioid-es (tukauki) are very noticeable. Growing in abundance among the beeches are 
Dracophyllum latifolium (neinei) and D. traversii. Their long slender stems and handsome heads of 
leaves make them seem more like cabbage-trees than close relatives of the heaths. In the gullies in 
the higher parts of the upper beech-forest zone Cordyline indivisa (toi), the most handsome of the 
cabbage-trees, and Senecio hectori, one of the most beautiful of the New Zealand composites, grow 
in profusion, and at a slightly lower level the banks of the streams are covered with a dense growth 
of Todea superba (Prince-of-Wales'-feather fern). 

At about 3,500 ft. the bush quickly loses its open character, and the subalpine zone is entered. 
Here we encounter a dense stunted growth of beeches, dracophyllums, Phormium cookianum (whara- 
riki ; mountain-flax) and mountain conifers. The latter are chiefly Dacrydium biforme (yellow-pine), 
D. intermedium (mountain-pine), D. bidwillii, D. laxifolium, Phyllocladus alpinus (mountain-toatoa), 
Libocedrus bidwillii (pahautea ; cedar). The subalpine zone extends up to the 4,000 ft. level, at which 
altitude the alpine meadowland is entered. 

Around us the ground is covered with a thick growth of " snow-grass," interspersed with small 
species of " Spaniards," and in spring and summer is decked with white-flowering gentians and com- 
posites. In sheltered places a few low, densely matted and dwarfed beeches and dacrydiums may bo 
found, while in the more rocky or exposed places little grows except lichens and Baoulia bryoides — a 
composite which somewhat resembles the " vegetable sheep." The most important alpine plants are 
Ranuncidus insignis, F. monroi, R. geraniifolius, Notothlaspi australc, Claytonia australasica, Aciphylla 
colensoi (taramea ; Spaniard), A. monroi, Celmisia coriacea (cotton-plant, lefither-plant), C. dallii. 
C. hieracifolia, C. incana, C. laricifolia, C. sessiliflora, C. traversii, Haastia sinclarii, Phyllachne colensoi, 
Forstera *bidwillii, Pratia macrodon, Dracophyllumfkirkii, Gentiana townsoni, Veronica buxifolia. 
V. gilliesiana, V. haastii, V macrantha, V. pulvinaris, Ourisia colensoi, 0. macrophylla, sessilifolia, 


Mountains Soi rH-EASi of Boulder Lake 

Sloping Uplands near Rocky Riveh, with Lead Hill i\ the Backqbound. 
Geo. Bulletin No. 5.] 


Tin: Uplands South-east or Aorere River, looking towards Lead Hill. 

View of Aoreke River, showing Upland Terraces in Background. (Unconformity between 


Geo. Bulletin No. 3.] 

Euphrasia revoluta, E. zealandica, Danthonia australis (carpet-grass, hassock-grass), D. crassiuscula, 
D. raoulii (snow-grass), D. semiannularis var. alpina, Poa colensoi. 

Of naturalized plants the most conspicuous is the blackberry, with which the old alluvial workings 
are now almost completely overgrown. This obnoxious plant is the most serious pest to the local 
farmers. Gorse, broom, and briar are also of frequent occurrence, together with numbers of herbaceous 
plants from Europe and elsewhere. 

The most important timber-trees of the district, placed in order of abundance, are : — 
White-pine or kahikatoa (Podocarpus dacrydioides) ; 
Pukatea (Laurelia novce-zealandiai) ; 
North Island rata (Metrosideros robusta) ; 

Tawhero, towai, kamahi, or " red-birch " (Weinmannia racemosa) ; 
Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) ; 
Yellow-pine {Dacrydium inter-medium) ; 
Black-pine, or matai (Podocarpus spicatus) — sometimes called red-pine in this district — a 

name which is elsewhere restricted to the rimu ; 
Several beeches, especially Fagus fusca and F. menziesii ; 
Mountain or South Island rata (Metrosideros lucida) ; 
Totara (Podocarpus totara). 
Of these, the first seven are found on low, flat country — kahikatea, pukatea, and sometimes rata 
on Bwampy land ; tawhero. matai, rimu, and often rata on drier parts ; yellow-pine on poor peaty 
soil with a more or less impervious subsoil. The beeches, the mountain-Tata, and the totara are found 
at various levels on the hillsides. The ratas, especially Metrosideros lucida, afford Btrong, durable 
timber if protected from alternations of humidity and dryness. There is a very large quantity of rata 
timber in the district, but the demand for it is at present very limited. Pukatea makes excellent boards 
for a variety of purposes and is attracting the attention of sswmfllers. 

On the low country, where the trees were easily handled, the supply of timber is now 
almost exhausted; hut the large forests covering the mountain-sides, although thev contain much 
valuable timber, must long remain untouched owing to the rugged and inaccessible nature of the 

Soil and Agriculture. 

The amount of land available in the Parapara subdivision for agricultural purposes is apparently 
very limited. As already mentioned, the open alpine country on the top of the mountain-ridges has 
been found well suited for sheep of the hardier breeds. Both the wool and the mutton from these 
high altitudes are superior to the lowland products. It seems hardly likely that for many years to 
come it will be found profitable to clear for grazing purposes the rugged, thickly wooded slopes inter- 
vening between the alpine country and the lowlands, even where the disintegration of the underlying 
strata yields a fertile soil, while the barren granite areas will probably always remain unutilised. On 
the Pikikiruna Range, however, several thousand acres of limestone land have been cleared, ?nd form 
excellent sheep-country. 

The soil of the flood plains of the Takaka River and of the Aorere River is generally of fair, and 
sometimes of good, quality: that of the Takaka appears to be the better, and produces satisfactory 
crops. In this district hop-growing is one of the principal industries. The Aorere Valley has not been 
as long cultivated as the Takaka Valley, but the general opinion in the locality is that it is more suited 
for dairy-farming than for general agriculture. The terraces which flank the valleys of the Aorere 
and of the Takaka are coated with a thin layer of light soil. In the Takaka Valley some of these terraces 
are used for pastoral purposes and have been planted with grass, while in the Aorere Valley they afford 
a somewhat m< agre sustenance for quite a large number of cattle. Very probably better results could 
be obtained from the terraces by the planting of Danthonia semiannularis and Chewing's fescue, 
grasses which have been successfully grown on some of the poorer lands of the North Island. 


Long ago Hochstetter pointed out the reason for the justly-famed mildness of the climate of Tasman 
Bav. The mafci mountain-chain of the South Island forks near its northern extremity, enclosing in 
the acute angle thus formed most of the inhabited part of the old Nelson Provincial District. That 
portion of the province which borders on Golden Bay shares the shelter given by the rampart of moun- 
tains to the south, but, owing to the comparative lowness of the hills to the north-west, is more exposed 
to the moisture-laden westerly winds, and has therefore a heavier rainfall than the country surrounding 
the town of Nelson. In the matter of rainfall there is a slight difference between the Aorere and Takaka 
Valleys, the latter having the smaller precipitation. This difference is due to the protection given 
to the Takaka Valley on the west by Walker Ridge and on the south by the Anatoki Ranges. On 
the other hand, the low, broad saddle of the Gouland Downs, at the head of Brown River, a tributary 
of the Aorere, affords an easy entrance through which the mist and fogs of the West Coast may often 
be seen rolling in leaden-coloured masses, the almost invariable precursors of rain. Thus broken weather 
in the Aorere Valley may be contemporaneous with fine days in the Takaka Valley. 

The writers of this Bulletin are unable to speak in an unprejudiced manner on the subject of the 
Golden Bav climate, since the six months which they spent in the district were from all accounts 
exceptionally dry. The proximity of the sea insures a breeze which prevents the hottest days from 
being oppressive, and also modifies the rigours of winter to such an extent that arums and American 
aloes nourish on the sea-coast. Golden Bay is, of course, exposed to the warm north-eas erly winds 
which bring heavy rain, but is well sheltered both from the cold southerlies of winter, and, in most 
parts, from the furious north-westers of summer. 

From statistics of the rainfall at Pakawau (north of the Parapara subdivision, but having prac- 
tically the same climate) obtained during thirty-three years, it seems that most of the rain falls from 
May to October. July is on the average the wettest month, while February and November are the 
driest months of the year. The following particulars regarding the rainfall in, and close to the north 
of, the Parapara subdivision are of interest : — 

Monthly Rainfall, expressed in Inches. 


Jan. Feb. Mar. April, j May. June. Juiy. Aug. Sept 


Nov. Dec. Total*. 





'.'. 4-19 
. . 14-90 




























10-08 4-86 











4 765 



5075 84-305 

4-03 77-315 

2-56 80-14 


• For nine months only. 

Months of Maximum Rainfall. 















December . . 






Months of Minimum Rainfall. 



Number of 







July . . 


Number of 



View of Otere Stream, showing Flood Plain, Upland Terraces, and Old Land. 

Cliffs of Clat, West Shore of Golden Bat. 

Geo. Bulletin No. 5.] 


Years of Maximum Rainfall. 

Total Rainfall. 

Number of 


Total Rainfall. 

Number of 




114 82 










Not known. 





109-22 | 








Years of Minimum Rainfall. 

Ramfall. «*»£ <* 


U*IL *™£« 

1891 .. 
1894 .. 
1897 .. 



Not known. 1898 
162 1900 
235 1906 


79-51 185 
88-17 174 
8079 177 

Average Annual Rainfall. 


Number of 

For the sixteen years from 1869 to 1884 .. .. 103-22 

Average annual number of rainy days for the same period .. .. 111-31 

Average for the 16 years from 1890 to 1905 .. .. .. .. 91-58 

Average annual number of rainy days for the twelve years from 1894 to 1905 .. L85'4J 

The foregoing description refers to the more settled paits of the subdivision. In the mountainous 
hinterland the climate is wetter than on the lowlands, and often, when the weather is fine near the 
sea-shore, dense fogs, which are almost as wetting as rain, hang about the hills. At times, however, 
radiant, exhilarating weather prevails at these high altitudes. None of the mountains of the Para- 
para subdivision rise above the permanent snow-line, though in winter and early spring snow covers 
most of the country above the 3,000 ft. level for several months, and occasional^- descends to lower 

8( KNERY. 

The quiet yet often beautiful and imposing landscapes of the Parapara subdivision stand in marked 
contrast to the bold and magnificent scenery of the Southern Alps. It is marvellous, however, how 
great is the variety of scenery within this limited area. Along Golden Bay are broad beaches of grey 
sand, in places flanked by precipitous cliffs of blue and yellow weathering clays, or. again, indented by- 
deep bays or spacious lagoons filled with water at high tide and surrounded by broken shores relieved 
occasionally by small patches of native bush. The Aorere from its headwaters high up in the southern 
hills to its mouth in Golden Bay presents an ever-changing prospect. In the upper part deep narrow 
canyons, with rock walls festooned with creepers, are diversified by broad shallow stretches with forest- 
clad shores. In places the river flows slowly and smoothly, again its placid surface is broken by wild 
cascades and rapids. Further down, near Bainham and Rockville, fertile green fields stretch away 
from the river-bank ; while nearer the sea the broad river, here and there divided by low bush-covered 
islands, is flanked by occasional patches of the formerly magnificent forest. Here rise the stately rimu 
and kahikatea. whilst the abundance of nikau palms and tree-ferns, coupled with the luxuriance of the 
vegetation, makes the scene almost tropical. 

The many little-known and almost never-visited streams which drain the rugged interior are 
8cenically of gTeat interest, and give a seemingly endless succession of wild, dark gorges with forest- 
clad mountain-sides, bright in summer with the brilbant flowers of the rata. Often the waterfalls, set 


in a background of ferns and creepers, are especially lovely, while an occasional natural bridge of rocks 
lends a rare charm to the sylvan scene. 

The view from one of the mountains of the interior, such as Mount Hardy or Lead Hill, presents 
a wide range of landscape. To the southward mountain after mountain stands out clear against the 
sky as a maze of aiguille-shaped peaks, surmounting razor-backed ridges, separated by deep valleys. 
Here and there mountain-tarns are visible, the most conspicuous being that gem of Karamea scenery, 
Boulder Lake, situated at a height of over 3,000 ft. above the sea. Eastward and westward ranges of 
bare-topped, forest-flanked ridges appear, while in the distance on either side gleam the waters of the 
Pacific. Northward is the broad valley of the Aorere, with its fields and homesteads, and still further 
away are the tranquil waters of Golden Bay. 

The valley of the Takaka River, with the charmingly situated settlements of Waitapu and Takaka, 
and the spacious uplands and terraces to the southward, afford a splendid panorama to the observer from 
the Walker Ridge, while from the same point of vantage may be seen to the westward the deep valleys 
of the Parapara and Slate Rivers, with their numerous tributaries. 


Much has been written about the area within the Parapara subdivision. The following list of 
the authors and their publications may be considered fairly complete. The abbreviations used are — 
Q.J.G.S. : Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London. 
Trans. : Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 
Rep. G.S. : Reports of the Geological Survey of New Zealand. 

A capital letter followed by a figure (thus : 0-3) refers to a New Zealand parliamentary 

1. 1855. Forbes, Charles. "The Geology of New Zealand; with Notes on its Carboniferous 

Deposits." Q.J.G.S., vol. xi, p. 528. This contains an account of an examination of Motu- 
pipi coal. 

2. 1859. Von Hochstetter, Ferdinand. " Lecture on the Geology of the Province of Nelson." 

Supplement to the Nelson Examiner, 1st Oct. This summarises the geology of the district. 

3. 1861. Von Haast, Julius. " Report of a Topographical and Geological Exploration of the 

Western Districts of Nelson Province, New Zealand." Published in Nelson. Most of the 
report deals with the areas south of the Parapara subdivision, but there are a few references to 
the area dealt with in this Bulletin. 

4. 1864. Von Hochstetter, Ferdinand, and Petermami, A. " Geological and Topographical Atlas 

of New Zealand." Auckland, T. Delattre. P. 6, Geological Map of Province of Nelson. 

5. 1864. Von Hochstetter, Ferdinand. "The Geology of New Zealand." Pp. 77-108, reprint 

of 1859 lecture; pp. 108-13, explanation of the 1864 map. 

6. 1864. Von Hochstetter, Ferdinand. " Reise der Novara." I Band, II Abth. This contains 

descriptions of Tertiary fossils from the Parapara subdivision. 

7. 1867. Von Hochstetter, Ferdinand. " New Zealand : its Physical Geography, Geology, and 

Natural History." Stuttgart, J. G. Cotta. Pp. 55-65, 83-84, 99-107, 465— geological sequence, 
coal, gold, and general description of the Parapara subdivision. 

8. 1869. Hector, James. " On Mining in New Zealand." Trans., vol. ii, p. 361. This has a brief 

mention of Collingwood Gokmeld. 

9. 1870. Davis, E. H. " Preliminary Report on Geology of Nelson and Collingwood Districts." 

Nelson Gazette, 26th Dec. Results are incorporated in Rep. G.S. 1871. (No. 11.) 

10. 1870. Wells, W. " Resemblance of Country in Neighbourhood of Dun Mountain and Wairoa 
Gorge to the Mining Districts of Queensland and Auckland." Trans., vol. hi, p. 290. This 
contains a reference to the Pioneer Company's copper-mine. 


11. 1871. Davis, E. H. " Collingwood District." Rep. G.S., 1870-71, p. 131. In this" Davis 

describes the alluvial workings and the Perseverance and other mines in the area. 

12. 1871. Hutton, F. W. " Report on the Geology of the Country between Bedstead Gully and 

Golden Gully, and on the Perseverance Gold-mine." Rep. G.S., 1870-71, p. 151. 

13. 1872. G-4, p. 12. " General Report and Statistical Tables of the Golden Bay Goldfields, Colling- 


14. 1872. Hutton, P. W. " Synopsis of the Younger Formations of New Zealand." Rep. G.S., 

1871-72, p. 182. This contains mention of the younger rocks of the area. 

15. 1873. Hutton, F. W. " Synopsis of Younger Formations of New Zealand." Q.J.G.S., vol. xxix, 

p. 372. This classes the Oamaru limestones of Vorere Valley, Takaka Valley, and Tata Islands 
with the Curiosity Shop beds as Upper Eocene. It also considers the Pakawau, West Wanganui, 
and Collingwood coalfields as Cretaceous. 

16. 1874. 1-1. " General Plan of Collingwood District."' This shows the position of the coal 

formations and deposits of iron-ore, some of which are within the Parapara subdivision. 

17. 1877. Cox, S. H. " Report on Argentiferous Lode at Collingwood." Rep. G.S., 1874-76, p. 59. 

This is an account of the Richmond Hill Silver-mine. 

18. 1877. Cox, S. H. " Report on Richmond Hill Silver-mine." Rep. G.S., 1876-77, p. 155. 

19. 1878. Hector, James. " Report on the Richmond Hill Mine." Rep. G.S., 1877-78, p. 8. 

Hector's later report (No. 35) is a reprint of this. 

20. 1879. Hector, James. " Classification." Rep. G.S., 1878-7!), p. 2. This contains references 

to some of the terrains exposed in the Parapara subdivision. 

21. 1879. Binns, G. J. "Report on Hiumatite at Parapara." Rep. G.S., 1878-79, p. 59. This 

describes the previous investigations, situation, mode of occurrence, and quantity of ore. 

22. 1880. H-22, p. 68. "Map showing Position of Coal and Iron Deposit m Collingwood District, 

near Nelson; also, the Depth of Water at Low Water where it is proposed that Two Wharves 
should be erected." One of these wharves is on the site of the proposed wharf in the map 
opposite p. 88 of this Bulletin. 

23. 1881. Cox, S. H. "On certain .Mines in the Nelson and Collingwood Districts and the Geology 

of the Riwaka Range." Rep. G.S., 1879-80. This has a general description of the geologv 
on pages 2 and 3, and a detailed account of the Ophir, Perseverance, and Richmond Hill Mines 
on pages 9-11. 

24. 1881. Cox, S. H. " On the Mineralogy of New Zealand." Trans., vol. xiv. p. 137. Parapara iron- 

ore , and p. 445, description of richmondite. 

25. 1882. Cox, S. H. "The Richmond Hill Silver-mine.'' Rep. i..S.. 1881, p. 13. This describes 

the condition oi the mine, and has recommendations as to its future working. 

26. 1882. Cox, S. II. "District between the Aorere and Takaka Valleys, Collingwood." Rep. 

G.S., 1881, p. 42. This has notes on the general geology, structure, &c. 

27. 1882. Cox, S. H. " On the Mineralogy of Now Zealand." Trans., vol. xv. p. 381, marble ; p. 383, 

aragonite ; p. 385, dolomite ; p. 391, corundum ; p. 393, asbestos ; p. 409, tourmaline. 

28. 1883. Cox, S. H. "On the District between Collingwood and Big River." Rep. G.S., 1882, 

p. 62. The map includes the Parapara subdivision, though the text deals chiefly with parts 
outside of it. 

29. 1884. Cox, S. H. " On the History of the Aorere River, Collingwood, since Miocene Times." 

Rep. G.S., 1883-84, p. 67. In this paper the writer considers that the main auriferous leads 
of the district were formed by the Aorere River when at much higher level. Mention is also 
made of the occurrence of ice-scratched stones on the hills between Collingwood and Parapara. 

30. 1885. O-10. " Connection of Collingwood Coalfields with Deep Water." Report on the most 

suitable place for a deep-water wharf in Golden Bay. 


31. 1885. Hutton, F. W. " Sketch of Geology of New Zealand." Q.J.G.S., vol. xli, p. 194. This 

contains conclusions superseded by Trans., vol. xxxii, p. 159. (No. 48.) 

32. 1886. Hector, James. " Handbook of New Zealand." Government Printer, Wellington. This 

has references to the district under " Economic Minerals," p. 36, &c. 

33. 1887. Washbourn, H. P. " Minerals at Nelson." Trans., vol. xx, p. 344. In this the writer quotes 

analyses of richmondite and of Parapara iron-ore, and demonstrates their commercial value 
and the possibility of treating them locally. 

34. 1888. Park, James. " On the Extent and Duration of Workable Coal in New Zealand." 

Trans., vol. xxi, p. 325. This paper discusses the age of New Zealand coals and the quantity 
of coal in various coalfields, including those of the Parapara subdivision. 

35. 1888. Hector, James. Rep. G.S., 1887-88, Progress Report, xiii-xx. This contains a descrip- 

tion of the Richmond Hill and Red Hill Mines. 

36. 1889. Hutton, F. W. " On the Relative Ages of the New Zealand Coalfields." Trans., vol. xxii, 

p. 377. In this Hutton dissents from the views of the Geological Survey. 

37. 1890. Hector, James. " Area of Coalfields." Rep. G.S., 1888-89, p. xxvii. This includes an 

estimate of the extent of coal in the Parapara subdivision. 

38. 1890. Park, J. " On the Red Hill Quartz-mine, Collingwood District, Nelson." Rep. G.S., 

1888-89, p. 45. 

39. 1890. Park, James. " On the Geology and Mineral Resources of the West Wanganui Coalfield, 

Collingwood County." Rep. G.S., 1888-89, p. 49. This contains notes on the Golden Ridge 
auriferous veins. 

40. 1890. Park, James. " On the Quartz Ranges Gold-mine, Collingwood." Rep. G.S., 1888-89,p. 67. 

41. 1890. Park, James. " On the Geology of Collingwood County, Nelson." Rep. G.S., 1888-89, 

p. 186. This is the most exhaustive report on the area under consideration. 

42. 1892. Hector, James. "Collingwood Goldfield." Rep. G.S., 1890-91, x-xxii. In this paper 

Hector advances a theory that the main gold-bearing lead follows a line of fault. He also 
estimates the value of the auriferous deposits. 

43. 1892. Hector, James. " Index to Fossiliferous Localities." Rep. G.S., 1890-91, p. 151. This 

summarises the information on the fossiliferous beds of the subdivision. 

44. 1892. Binns, G. J. " Mining in New Zealand." Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng., 1892 ; pp. 8-12, 

49, 52, 54, 71. He mentions various mining industries of the Parapara subdivision. 

45. 1895. C-10a. " Report on Samples of Iron-ore, Limestone, and Haematite Paints." 

46. 1896. McKay, A. "The Geology of the Aorere Valley, Collingwood County, Nelson." C-ll, 

pp. 4—26. In this, McKay summarises the previous investigations, and considers the lower 
Aorere Valley to be determined by faulting. According to him, also, the quartz wash is marine 
in origin, and older than the fossiliferous limestone. 

47. 1899. C-2, p. 14. This mentions the amount of haematite paint manufactured by Washbourn 

Bros, during the year. 

48. 1899. Hutton, F. W. " The Geological History of New Zealand." Trans., vol. xxxii, p. 159. 

Hutton's conclusions are incorporated in the Comparative Classification of this Bulletin. 

49. 1900. Hector, James. " Iron Ores and Sands of New Zealand." New Zealand Mines Record, 

vol. iii, p. 472. This is a reprint of the analyses and the description of the iron manufactured 
from Parapara limonite, from Handbook of 1886 (No. 32), p. 44. 

60. 1900. Neiv Zealand Mines Record, vol. iv, p. 186. This gives the gold-returns from the Aorangi 
(Golden Blocks) Mine. 

51. 1900. Park, James. " The West Wanganui Coalfield." New Zealand Mines Record, vol. iv, 
p. 78. This is a reprint of part of the Geological Report of 1888-89 (No. 41). 


62. 1900. Park, James. " Notes on the Coalfields of New Zealand." New Zealand Mines Record, 
vol. iii, p. 349. This summarises the information on the age and prospects of the New Zealand 
coalfields, including those of the Parapara subdivision. 

53. 1902. McKay, Alexander. " Gold-deposits of New Zealand." New Zealand Mines Record, 

vol. v, pp. 357-361, et seq. In this paper the auriferous deposits of the Parapara subdivision 
are described. 

54. 1902. Park, James. " Notes on the Occurrence of Native Lead at Parapara. Collingwood." 

Trans., vol. xxxv.. p. 403. 

55. 1903. McKay, Alexander. " Gold-deposits of New Zealand." Government Printer, Wellington. 

This is a reprint from the New Zealand Mines Record (No. 53). 

56. 1905. Bell, James Mackintosh. " The Great Deposit of Iron-ore at Parapara, New Zealand.' 

Iron Trade Reriew, 23rd November. 

57. 1905. Bell, James Mackintosh. 'The Salient Features of the Economic Geology of New Zea- 

land." Economic Geology, vol. i, No. 8, p. 735. 

58. 1905. Curie, J. H. " The Gold-mines of the World." On page 20 is a reference to the Golden 

Blocks and Taitapu Estates. 

59. 1906. " The New Zealand Mining Handbook." Much information regarding the Parapara sub- 

division is scattered through this book. 

60. 1906. Loughnan, R. A. " The First Gold-discoveries in New Zealand." Wellington, Government 

Printer. Reprint from New Zealand Mines Record. 




Page. Page 

Inhabitants . . . . . . 12 Water-races . . . . . . 14 

Industries . . . . . . . . 12 History of Mining . . . . . . 15 

Means of Communication . . . . 13 System of Gold-mining . . . . 19 


Though the whole of the Takaka Valley is closely settled with small agricultural holdings, Takaka, 
the most thriving settlement in the area described in this Bulletin, is the sole township. The most 
serious drawbacks to its situation are its distance (about two miles) from the seaport, Waitapu, and 
its liability to inundation by exceptionally high floods in the Takaka River. 

The length and narrowness of the Aorere Valley have led to the development of three settlements 
at about equal intervals along its lower course. Of these, the most important is the Port of Collingwood, 
which, however, lies outside the limits of the subdivision. About five miles up the valley from Colling- 
wood is the small settlement of Rockville, chiefly noteworthy for being the centre of a large and 
growing dairying industry. Some five miles beyond Rockville is Bainham, which owes its existence 
mainly to the dairying and sawmilling industries. 

There are post and telephone offices at Motupipi, Takaka, Waitapu, Rockville, and Bainham ; 
a post-office only at Puremahaia ; and a telephone-office only at Parapara. 

The settlement of the Nelson Province was due to the enterprise of the New Zealand Land Com- 
pany — a body formed in Great Britain in the year 1839 for the purpose of taking up and settling land 
in New Zealand. In 1841 three ships, the " Arrow," the " Whitby," and the " Will Watch," sailed 
from London with emigrants, chiefly, it seems, from the southern counties, who were to found a settle- 
ment to be called Nelson. The motives of the company were mistrusted by the authorities in New 
Zealand, who were with difficulty induced to allow the immigrants to settle in Blind Bay, where the com- 
pany had previously purchased land from the Natives. Apparently the settlement of Golden Bay did 
not begin until after 1850, when people were attracted to Waitapu and Motupipi by the discovery of 
coal, though for many years there appears to have been little increase in the population. The Aorere 
Valley was seemingly unsettled until about 1855-56. With the discovery of gold about 1857 the popu- 
lation of the' Parapara subdivision received a substantial increase. As in most gold-mining centres, 
agriculture has developed slowly, but is probably in a better position to-day than ever before. 

The area under consideration, according to the census of April, 1906. contained about 2,000 Euro- 
pean inhabitants, of whom 1,350 live in the Waitapu, and 650 in the Aorere Survey District. During 
the early days of the settlement the Maoris were numerous, but the majority soon left the district, 
mainly for Taranaki in the North Island. Their departure was possibly a result of the serious mis- 
understanding with the New Zealand Land Company, which culminated in the massacre at Wairau 
in the eastern part of Nelson. At present there are twenty-five Maoris and twelve half-caste Maoris 
living in the subdivision. 


The Parapara subdivision is not, as yet, remarkable for any industrial enterprise. The agricul- 
tural industry has been dealt with on p. 5 , and the mining industry will be separately described in 
this chapter. The methods of sawmilling in the subdivision are rather primitive. A few sawmills, 
scattered over the area, and situated in close proximity to the paiticular bush which is being cut out. 
supply the local demand, but very little timber is sent out of the district. It is surprising that some 
attempt is not made to conduct the timber industry on a large scale and with up-to-date machinery. 





Some l'ttle time ago a flax-mill, near the mouth of the Puremahaia, was treating flax from the 
coastal plain between Takaka and Collingwood, but there are at present no flax-mills in the sub- 
division. Indeed, the extent of flat, swampy ground is not great, and the flax industry will probably 
always be small. 

Means of Communication. 

The Cape Farewell Peninsula, owing to its geographical position, is somewhat isolated from the rest 
of the colony. Post ard telephone facilities, however, are very good considering the paucity of the 
population. The chief communication with the outer world is by means of small steamers, which trade 
to and from Nelson three or four times a week. An excellently graded road over the Pikikiruna Range, 
south of the limits of this subdivision, connects Takaka with Motueka, and a weekly mail-coach runs 
between these two townships. 

Within the district itself, means of communication by roads and tracks arc good in the settled 
parts of the subdivision, though poor in the interior. The road surveyed between Takaka and Colling- 
wood is not quite completed, and travellers are obliged to follow the sea-beach for a small portion of 
the way. The crossing of the unbridged Parapara River, though ordinarily an easy matter, becomes 
both difficult and dangerous in flood-time. 

From Collingwood a road leads up the Aorere Valley, to Eliot's homestead, a distance of about 
eighteen miles. Beyond Eliot's a pack-track of good grade waa constructed some nineteen years ago 
across the Gouland Downs to the mouth of the Heaphy River. It was supposed that, besides forming 
i means of communication with Karamea, this track would be of great service in opening up the country, 
thought to be auriferous, round the Gouland Downs. Neither of these hopes has been fulfilled, and the 
track is now overgrown. During the height of the gold rush, dray-roads of a more or less rough character 
formed to Appo's Flat and Golden Gully from Collingwood, and from near the mouth of Slate 
River to the Bedstead Gullv and Cole Creek workings. With the almost entire cessation of work 
in tin tlnse roads have fallen into disrepair and are now only occasionally used. 

During the gold rushes of 1858 and 18fi.3 prospectors pushed their way into the heart of the rugged 
country at the head of SnoW8,j?Rocky, and Slate Rivers. The tracks made hv these early pioneers 
have, in some instances, completely disappeared, though others are still used as the principal means 
of entrance into the hack country. The tracks naturally follow the main ridges, where the going is, 
as a rule, much easier than in the valleys. Prom Takaka a pack-track formerly led upa spur on to 
Walker Ridge, and so gave ready access to the h adwaters of Slate and Snows Rivers. This track 
is now impassable, and is superseded by .1 pack-track up the Anatoki River, whence a fairly easy crossing 
may be made into the head of Slate ot Snows River. The quickest route from the Takaka side of the 
subdivision into the interior is by Flowers' sheep-track, which, beginning at the bridge over the west 
side of the Onahau on the Takaka-Collingwood Road, leads op the main spur between the two branches 
of the Onahau on to P • para Perk and them the saddle between the Waikoromumu, Handcock 

Creek, and Slate River, along Walker Ridge to the head-waters of the Slate River. Flowers' sheep- 
track is impracticable for horses, is obviously a very circuitous route, and in many places is of exceed- 
ingly steep grade, especially at the deep saddle known as the Devil's Dip. where slopes of 30° to 40° 
are the rule. The worst part of the track — namely, the ascent from the Parapara-Collingwood Road 
to Parapara Peak — is, however, avoided by following the much gentler gradient of the spur between 
the Onakaka and Otere Streams. The lower portion of this alternative route follows a sledge-track 
formed during the exploitation of the Hidden Treasure Claim. This track is of remarkably good grade 
in its upper part towards the Hidden Treasure Claim, but lower down, near the head of the Otere 
Stream, its grade is much steeper. From the claim to the peak the track is only blazed, but is 
of good gradient. 

From Parapara Peak a blazed track leads from Flowers' track westward along the ridge between 
the Parapara and Slate Rivers, and forms a fairly good means of access to the middle part of the latter 

From the Aorere side of the subdivision, the Boulder Lake pack- track, joined near its northern 
end by a branch from Bainham, leads from the mouth of Slate River up the spur between the Rocky 


and Little Boulder Rivers, over the Black and Brown Cows, and so on to Boulder Lake. This track 
is hardly practicable for horses beyond the Castles, though they have occasionally been taken to the 
foot of the Brown Cow. From this track near the Castles, a good horse-track leads down into Rocky 
River, continues as a foot-track up the spur above Maori Gully, and so on to the main track near the 
foot of the Brown Cow, thus saving a considerable detour. A footpath leads down into Rockv River 
from the Castles, and there is another from the mouth of Rocky River, over Mount Treblow, to the 
Boulder Lake track. 

The head of Snows and Slate Rivers is reached from the Boulder Lake track by following the 
main ridge without descending to Boulder Lake. A very direct route into the middle waters of the 
Slate lies along the track following the ridge to the west of the Parapara River. This track was made 
by the surveyors engaged by the Red Hill Company to report on the practicability of bringing a water- 
race from the head of the Slate River. A foot-track, which lies partly within the limits of this subdivision, 
leads up the gorge of the Kaituna to the Golden Ridge and Golden Blocks Mines, which can thus be 
reached in six hours from Collingwood. 


Li the early days of the Collingwood Goldfield small water-races were constructed wherever alluvial 
gold-mining was carried on. 

In order to work the rich gossan of the Perseverance Mine (afterwards the Johnston's United), a 
race about five miles in length was made, bringing the upper waters of the Parapara into a reservoir 
near Golden Bay, and another expensive race was built along the bank of the Parapara for the supply- 
ing of motive power to the Red Hill claim, but both these races have now fallen completely into decay. 

The longest water-race at present in use was constructed about the year 1898 by the Collingwood 
Goldfields Company in order to bring the water from Boulder Lake and other sources to the sluicing 
claim on the Quartz Ranges. The lake, which is 3,224 ft. above sea-level, has a catchment-area of 
about four square miles. A masonry dam has been built across the outlet of the lake, raising the 
water 10 ft. and considerably increasing the size of the lake. From the dam the water is allowed to 
flow along the bed of Boulder River to the intake. Thence five miles of wooden fluming conducts 
the water through exceedingly rough country to the penstock. The width of the fluming, in the 
construction of which nearly a million feet of timber was used, is 4 ft., and its depth 3 ft. 6 in. The 
race has a fall of 6 in. in 100 ft., and a capacity of 50 cubic feet per second. Besides the water from 
Boulder Lake, some could be obtained from Boulder River and Little Doctor Creek. The total cost 
of construction of the race was about £30,000. 

The Slate River Sluicing Company's water-supply is derived from a reservoir occupying what 
was formerly called Toitoi Flat. An earthen dam has been constructed which retains the water from 
Cole, Coppermine, and Sawpit Creeks. The water from the dam flows along an open canal, and is 
conducted by means of a short tunnel through a saddle separating the Stanton Creek and Doctor Creek 
watersheds, into Doctor Creek, which is used as an open race for about a quarter of a mile. From the 
intake (about a mile and a half above the mouth of Doctor Creek) a short length of open race leads to 
the penstock. The available supply of water is sixteen heads.* The total cost of construction of the 
dam and race was £13,785. 

The Parapara Hydraulic Sluicing Company diverts all the water of the Parapara River when at 
normal level by a masonry dam at the lower end of Richmond Flat, 700 ft. above sea-level. Thence the 
water is conducted through the saddle between Richmond Flat and Appo's Creek, by means of a tunnel 
1,200 ft. long, and then passes along 25 chains of wooden fluming to the penstock at a height of about 
580 ft. above sea-level. The pipes at the penstock have a diameter of 30 in., which is reduced to 27 in., 
and again to 24 in. in passing from the penstock to the end of the pipe-line. When working Parapara 
Flat, the pipe-line was conducted through Glen Gyle, and had at that time a total length of two miles. 
This length was gradually diminished as the workings approached Glen Gyle. The capacity of the race 

* The New Zealand head of water = 1 cubic foot per second. 


A.ORERE River, m. ir Elio i '- Bouse. 

Miocene Strata, Aorere River, two miles above Bainham. 

i,', ,,, /;.<//. tin No. .; ] 


is fifty heads, but in very dry weather the flow of water is reduced to fifteen heads. It has been esti- 
mated that by means of storage reservoirs at Richmond Flat and other places in the Parapara water- 
shed a much larger supply could be obtained, which could readily be utilised for motive power at the 
Parapara Flat. 

The Takaka Sluicing Company's water-race, constructed in 1901, is 186 chains long. The intake 
is situated just below the junction of Contact Creek with Campbell Creek. Thence an open canal, giving 
place in the most precipitous parts to wooden flumiiig. with a capacity of fifteen heads, leads to a small 
reservoir overlooking the claim. The total length of the wooden fluming is 1.122 ft. The supply is 
not sufficient for constant use, and therefore frequent cessation of sluicing operations is necessary. 
From the penstock, pipes successively 30 in., 22 in.. 18 in., 15 in.. 13 in., and 9 in. in diameter conduct 
the water to the claim. The total cost of the race, including pipes and all accessories was £3,558. 

History of Mining. 

A great variety of mining operations has been carried out in the Parapara subdivision from time 
to time. Alluvial gold-mining has long been conducted, whilst auriferous veins have been successfully 
worked in several instances, and there have been desultory attempts to mine both coal and iron. 

In 1857 gold was discovered in the alluvium at the junction of Light band Cully and Appo's Creek 
by John Ellis, a sawyer, now resident in Collingwcod. Unaware, it is said, of the nature of the metal 
which he had found in the creek he sent a sample, which he had carefully panned, to Mr. Lighthand 
(now living at Brightwater, near Nelson), who had worked in the Australian diggings. Lightband began 
cradling at the position of Ellis's discovery, ami his undertakings proved so remunerative that a rush 
to the Collingwood Goldfielda soon commenced. With greal rapidity other creeks in addition to Appo's 
Creek and Lightband Gully were proved to be auriferous, and the rush spread from Appo's Flat and 
still higher up Appo's Creek to Stanton Creek, Doctor Creek and its tributaries, on to the Slate River 
and its tributaries. Rocky and Snows, and to the bars along the A.orere and the lower Parapara. The 
Quartz Ranges were not worked till I85S. when Edward W'asli'noiirn. one ol the pioneers of mining 
in the Parapara subdivision, started operations with a »;iii}! of men on the hie; claim m Maori Gully. 
The Anatoki Goldfield was rushed from the Collingwood field in 1858 or 1859. Here the workings 
were not so rich nor so extensive as the more northerly field. They were limited almost entirely to 
Page Creek and the Waikoromumu. In the latter stream three miners named Bray, Lloyd, and 
Baker are said to have goi 8< • wr\ rich gold. 

In the Collingwood Field. Doctor t reek and Lighl hand Gully were anion" the richest of the smaller 
creeks, but Slate River was much the richest of all the streams. \t Mackenzie's Bar. the lowest on Slate 
River, four men with a tom re stated to have obtained n<> less than Kmi ,,/. a day. At Brandy Point, 
on the same stream, though the river-bed was not especially rich, the terrace- were veritable bonanzas. 
When Slate River was at the height of it- glory, between 1858 and I860, probably 2.5(H) people were on 
the Collingwood Goldfield. 

In lightband Gully the gold was generally line. In Appo's Plat it was much coarser and nuggets 
up to 2 oz. and 3 oz. were obtained. Gold to the value of fully t!5.(KK) is stated to have been taken 
out of the upper end of Appo's Flat, from about three-quarters of an acre ol shallow workings.' The 
Golden Gully gold was exceedingly fine, though of high quality. It is said that it brought £3 15s. 6d. 
per ounce while most of the Collingwoo«l gold brought quite •'!-. less. It is -fated that in the early 
days (about 1858) no less than 40,000 oz. of the precious metal was taken from a thin layer of 
quartz wash, 1 ft. to 15 in. thick. Cole Gully gave coarse, dirty, cellular gold, containing quartz and 
having its cavities filled with iron-oxide. The gold from Bedstead Gully was clean and yellow. In the 
lower Slate River the gold was generally medium to coarse grained, with a few large nuggets. 

It has been estimated that the gold obtained from Rocky River, which was extremely rich, amounted 
in value to not much less than £100,000. The gold of the main stream was generally coarse and 
water-worn. In Maori Gully, one of the tributaries of Rocky River, the gold was somewhat patchy. 
It differed markedly in character from that of the main stream, being lower in grade, darker in colour. 
and of a reefy nature. As in the main stream, the gold was coarse, nuggets weighing up to 6 oz. or 8 oz. 


being not uncommon. Mackenzie Creek was worked with only fair results, but operations in Forrester 
Oreek proved more remunerative. Only the river-beds of the main Rocky River and of its tributaries 
were worked till 1860, when attention was drawn to the lower terraces. These were proved to carry 
highly payable gold. Claims were worked usually by small parties of men and returns frequently 
averaged £20 per man per week, 3 oz. or 4 oz. nuggets being of common occurrence, while the largest, 
found by a digger named Gibson, was valued at £50. In 1868, the discovery was made that the higher 
river-terraces were also very rich in gold, especially the one known as Maori Terrace. This proved 
highly payable, nuggets up to 6 oz. or 8 oz. being frequently found, and in one instance a party of two 
men while stripping the surface unearthed a 19 oz. nugget. The difficulty in working the higher terraces 
lay in the necessity for the construction of water-races — a matter of considerable moment to such small 
and poorly furnished parties, but one which was overcome by co-operative action. A water-race was 
constructed from Mackenzie Creek sufficiently large to supply all parties working on Maori Terrace. 
At the present time all the terraces have been practically worked out, only one party being now on the 
spot, engaged in somewhat uncertain prospecting on small patches of ground overlooked or discarded 
by previous diggers. 

The gold of the upper Snows River, discovered by George and Tom Snows in 1857, was generally 
coarse, though there was apparently a good deal of fine gold mixed with it. 

fW' In the Boulder River and Salisbury Creek, patches of rich gold, coarse and rust-coated, were obtained 
near the mouths of the streams. Gardiner Gully was good for a while, being worked by one man, who 
is said to have procured metal worth £475 in seven months' time. The gold was flattened apparently 
by pressure and was of very irregular shape. Buck Gully, close to Gardiner Gully, gave light and 
scaly gold. 

The Burgoo Stream, a tributary of the Aorere, south of the Parapara subdivision, was the cause 
of a short-lived excitement during one season — 1870. The gold was bright and heavy, and owing to 
the small size of the creek was easily obtained. £10 or £15 a week is said to have been made by the 
best men. 

The gold at the entrance to the Parapara Lagoon was not very rich. The gold was fine and flaky, 
but not so fine as the black-sand gold of the West Coast. It was obtained by washing the alluvium in 
boxes with sea-water got by pumping. In the lower Parapara River the gold obtained in the early 
days was of medium coarseness. 

When Dr. Von Hochstetter visited the Collingwood Field, it is reported that he remarked that no 
alluvial gold would ever be found to the west of the Aorere. The one exception to the correctness of 
this statement is the Kaituna and its tributaries.* These streams, which were worked in 1859. carried 
a little gold, Victoria Creek being probably the richest. 

The greater part of the gold in all the streams was worked out in the first few years after the initial 
discoveries, but ever since small amounts in annually diminishing quantity have been procured from 
most of the creeks. Slate River, where much of the gold occurs in crevices in the argillites and phyllites, 
has been worked and reworked many times, and even up to the present day a few lonely " hatters " eke 
out a scant and uncertain livelihood. 

In the earlv years of the Slate River workings, as well as elsewhere on the Collingwood Field, 
toms and cradles were the only gold-saving appliances employed. Box-sluicing first came into vogue 
on the Slate River in 1859. and the practice soon became general throughout the field. 

In recent years alluvial gold has been obtained in greatest quantity by sluicing operations on an 
extensive scale. The Parapara Hydraulic Sluicing Company was originated in 1892, when a number 
of independent claims were bought up and work commenced on a broader basis than had been possible 
with the smaller concerns. Among the claims thus amalgamated may be mentioned " Glen Mutchkin," 
" Glen Gyle," and the " Hit or Miss." " Glen Mutchkin " was first worked about forty years ago by 
William Caldwell, who brought water from the Parapara, and is said to have obtained about 1,500 pounds' 
worth of gold, when slips became too troublesome for his more or less primitive methods. " Glen 
Gyle" was worked almost continuously by a combination known as the "Glen Gyle party," from the 

* This exception is, however, mentioned in Hochstetter's "New Zealand," footnote p. 104. 


Igneous Rocks i\ Gorge, Aorere Rivei 

(;< o. Hulli tin No. J j 

Roi k-boi M' I Iorge, Aorere Ria er. 


early days of the goldfield until the present company was inaugurated. The " Hit or Miss " Claim, 
just at the head of Glen Gyle near Appo's Creek, was worked by driving out, and is said to have been 
\<i v rich, but exceedingly difficult to mine owing to the irregularity of the wash. 

Since the commencement of operations by the Parapara Sluicing Company, work has been carried 
on at various places in Glen Mutchkin. in two faces known as Nos. 1 and 2 close to the Parapara River, 
on the low coastal Hat near Parapara Hall, and in Glen Gyle. At present the company is operating 
on Appo's Flat. Up to date, gold to the value of £32,892 16s. 5d. has been obtained. 

The Takaka Sluicing Company (Limited), which was formed in 1901, took up a freehold of 195 
acres which had previously been worked by individual miners in a desultory manner for some years. 
The company has obtained up to date about 3,850 oz. of gold. 

In 1896, a company known as the Colling wood Goldfields Company (Limited) was formed to prose- 
cute sluicing operations on the widely distributed auriferous gravels of the Quartz Ranges. The richest 
of these gravels had already been worked, but it was expected that operations on a large scale would 
prove highly remunerative. The race described on p. 14 was constructed at immense cost. It is 
said that the cost of shifting the gravels by the water thus obtained was only about £d. per cubic 
yard. However, the work did not pay and the company went into liquidation, the whole of the 
plant being purchased by Mr. C. Y. Fell, of Nelson, who has since let the claim on tribute. Some 
1,302 oz. of gold were won by the company. 

During the recent inflation of the dredging industry several gold-dredges were constructed, but 
none met with any great success, and all are now abandoned or converted to other uses. 

At various times a number of auriferous and metalliferous veins have been worked in the Parapara 
subdivision, though at the present time only one mine of this nature — namely, the Aorangi (Golden 
Blocks)— is being successfully operated. 

In the central part of the area at present under consideration successful metal-mining has been 
carried on at one mine only — namely, the Johnston's United— though there have been other prospects 
which began with promising expectations. Johnston's United Mine, situated on the divide between 
Bedstead Gully and Wakefield Gully, was originally known as the " Perseverance " The lode was 
discovered in 1866, by Mr. Thomas Adams and party. The first work done consisted simply 
in breaking up the gossan with hammers, and washing out the gold. In this primitive way 
1,500 pounds' worth of gold was obtained. About the year 1869 the Perseverance Company was 
organised in Nelson by Mr. James Bennett, and carried on operations till 187<>, when the mine was 
closed down. During this time over 10,000 oz. of gold were obtained by crushing in a battery in 
Bedstead Gully. In 1879, a new company, known as the Johnston's United Company, was formed, 
and conducted work at intervals till it closed down in 1897. It is said that no less than 20,000 oz. of 
gold were obtained by the Johnston's United Company from crushings made at the battery in Wake- 
field Gully. Recently prospecting has been carried on in the old mine by Mr. F. West, of Collingwood, 
and Mr. C. Y. Fell, of Nelson, but apparently without great success. While operations were being 
conducted by the Johnston's I'nited Company the Decimal Company constructed a battery in Decimal 
Gully, a tributary of Wakefield Gully, to work what appeared to be a continuation of Johnston's 
United Reef. The company was apparently not very successful. 

The so-called Phoenix Mine at Cole Gully had a brief career. It was started by the late Mr. Guinness. 
of Collingwood, about the close of the year 1870. A battery was erected, but after working the reef 
for a few years the company failed. Some time later the Ophir Mine was started on a reef occurring 
higher up Cole Gully, and about 100 oz. of gold were obtained by crushing in a battery erected on the 
Phcenix site. About 1870 a shaft was sunk in Coppermine Gully on a vein supposedly rich in copper. 
The workings were carried down some 65 ft., but without great success. The Red Hill Mining Com- 
pany was originated by Auckland gentlemen operating with English capital, in order to work a number 
of small veins in Red Hill which were supposed to be highly auriferous. Extensive buildings were 
erected, a race built, an elaborate battery installed, and much surface and underground prospecting 
cairied out, but without success. The Richmond Hill vein was discovered by Mr. H. P. Washbourn 
towards the end of the year 1873, and soon after an Auckland company was formed to work it. Shafts 
were sunk aud tunnels driven, but without remunerative returns. Subsequently the company liqui- 
2 — Karaniea. 


dated and a new company was formed, which, however, met with no greater success than the original 

In the western part of the subdivision mining interest centres in the Taitapu Estate. This huge 
Murk of land, comprising 85,000 acres, situated between West Wanganui Inlet and the mouth of the 
Big River, is owned by a London company known as" The Taitapu Gold Estates (Limited)." which was 
registered in 1895, with a capital of £175,000. Prospecting for quartz-reefs was early undertaken by the 
company. Undiscovered auriferous veins were supposed to exist owing to the fact that much of the 
gold occurring in the Anatori and its tributaries was of a reefy nature, and also because three small 
quartz-mines had been worked in this property before it was acquired by the company. One at Friday 
Creek, a tributary of Sandhill Creek, was owned by Wilkie and party. Here a small battery was erected, 
which was worked by a water-wheel and connected with the mine by a tramway. The deposit proved 
of little value, and the mine closed down. The two other quartz-mines, known respectively as the 
" Morning Star " and the " Golden Ridge " (now the " Old Golden Ridge "), were situated in close 
contiguity on the face of the hill overlooking the Slaty Gorge, nearly south of Mount Baldy. Both 
these were worked by co-operative parties of miners, and paid very well until the respective ore bodies 
pinched out or became so small as to be no longer remunerative. 

The Taitapu Gold Estates Company early discovered what appeared to be a large reef of very 
rich stone, about a quarter of a mile south of the Old Golden Ridge. However, after many expensive 
works of various kinds had been constructed, the vein was proved to be small and the values patchy. 
Later a good deal of gold was obtained from the Ant-hill Mine, situated a little south of the Golden 
Ridge. Recently the gold-output from the mines of the company has been very small. Shortly after 
commencing operations the Taitapu Gold Estates Company agreed with a syndicate, who eventually 
formed the Golden Blocks of Taitapu (Limited) Company, to allow prospecting to go on within their 
boundaries. In 1898, the subsidiary company obtained a lease of the area now worked by them to 
the south of the Ant-hill Mine, and known as the "Golden Blocks" or " Aorangi" Mine. The latter 
has been successful ever since its inauguration. Johnston and party are said to have been the dis- 
coverers of the reef, which has yielded up to the present 18,745 oz. of gold. The output for 1906 was 
1,543 oz. 

It is remarkable that the great deposit of iron-ore at Parapara, so well known for many years, 
should have remained practically untouched up to the present time. In the early days before the advent 
of white people, the iron-ore was used by the Maoris for making paint. In the early seventies Messrs. 
T. B. Louisson and Darnel Johnston began the manufacture of paint in Nelson from ore brought from 
Parapara. In 1879 these gentlemen sold out their interests to the New Zealand Paint Company, which 
conducted work in a very desultory fashion for two years, when the affairs of the company were wound 
up and the works sold to H- P. and A. J. Washbourn, who have conducted the paint-manufacture ever 
since. In 1873 a company known as the Parapara Iron and Coal Company (Limited) was organized 
in Melbourne in order to smelt the iron-ore. The smelting was to take place at Ferntown, near Colling- 
wood, where there were coal- outcrops, and whither the iron-ore was to be taken in barges. Numerous 
works were undertaken at Ferntown, barges built, &c, but as the capital of the company was inadequate 
for the work in hand, nothing materialised, and the company went into liquidation. 

The next attempt to smelt the Parapara iron-ore was made by Howard Keep and John Chambers, 
of Auckland, who took up a 640-acres lease, and held it for ten years, when it became the property of 
the Bank of New Zealand. The Bank, in order to hold the ground, constructed a road and stacked a 
little ore. About the same time Messrs. J. Kerr and Percy Adams, of Nelson, took up a block of iron- 
bearing land between the Tukurua and Onakaka, and also a coal-area at Mataura, near Collingwood. 
An effort was made to sell the holdings abroad but without success, and the lease soon lapsed. In 
1902 Sir Alfred J. Cadman obtained a lease of 1,000 acres of iron-bearing country, and in 1903 a claim 
of 920 acres was staked, which included the 640 acres of the original Parapara Iron and Coal Company. 
On the death of Sir A. J. Cadman in 1904, Mr. D. Berry, of New Plymouth, took charge of the iron 
property, and an effort was made to obtain capital in London by Mr. J. H. Witheford, but withoiit 
success, apparently because of the paucity of necessary data relative to the iron-deposit. In the early 
part of 1907 the " Parapara Iron and Coal Syndicate " was formed. This company has acquired the 



Glaciates Rocks near Boulder Lake. 

Gi '■- Built tin No. S.] 


properties comprised in the Cadman lease, and has also purchased the ground held by the Washbourr.s 
to the south of the latter property. 

Hoehstetter mentions that coal had been mined at Motupipi prior to his examination of that part 
of the country in 1859.* hut the workings here and at Rangihaieta Head have been idle practically since 
that date. A little coal is mined for local consumption around the Golden Ridge and Golden Blocks 
Mines, and also near Payne's Bridge on the Takaka River. 

For some vears and until quite recently, work was prosecuted on the more southerly of the Tata 
Islands, and on the mainland adjoining, by the Marlborough Lime and Cement Company, about 7,000 
tons of stone in all having been shipped to Picton for manufacture into cement. For the past year 
or so lime and cement have been manufactured in a small way near the mouth of the Motupipi River, 
and a small limekiln has been in operation near Payne's Bridge on the Takaka River. 

Systkm of Gold- mining. 

In the past the rich alluvial deposits in the streams and rivers were worked by panning, cradling, 
or ground-sluicing. These methods are still followed by those who are working without capital. When, 
owing to the position of the claim or the lack of capital, the miner is unable to bring the water directly 
on to the wash, the dirt, if rich enough, is driven out and washed at a place where water is obtainable. 
The capitalised alluvial claims, four in number are all worked bv hydraulic sluicing, as a'so are one 
or two private claims. The former are operated by the Quartz Ranges Company working the quartz 
wash between Boulder and Clark Rivers : the Slate River Sluicing Company, working the wash at the 
mouth of the Slate River ; the Parapara Company, working at present on Appo'a Flat ; and the Takaka 
Sluicing Company, working the old deposits of the Waikoromumu River. Of the two quartz-mines 
in the area, only one — the A.orangJ (Golden Blocks) — is at present in active operation. The reef-forma- 
tion at the Aorangi Mine dips at high angles, and is worked by OTOBSCUt drives and levels. Overhand 
stoping is the ordinary method of mining the ore At the mill the ore is partly reduced bv spalling- 
h amine r, and then finely crushed in an eight-stamp batten. Vmalgamation in the mortal -boxes is 
practised, after which the pulverised ore passed over amalgamated copper plates, and finally over 
blanket strakes. The gold is fairly coarse, and a 70-per-cent. extraction is said to be obt lined. 

■ Not / • dand ' L887, p. 83. 

2' — Karamea. 




Page. Page. 

Sim ueice of Formations .. .. .. 20 I General Account of the Structure of the Several 

Geological History .. .- .. ••• 21 | Formations .. .. ..22 

Sequence of Formations. 
The oldest fossiliferous rocks in the Parapara subdivision consist of a series of argillites, grauwackes, 
and quartzites, which are Ordovician in age. These outcrop in the western part of the area. In the 
eastern part of the subdivision are crystalline complex carbonates, quartzites, and schists of various 
kinds which are at least partly older than the undoubted Ordovician strata, and may be altogether 
so though it seems likely that the upper members are merely the metamorphic equivalents of the 
Ordovician strata. The undoubted Ordovician rocks in the western part of the subdivision and the 
highly metamorphic strata in the eastern and central parts have been classified together as the Aorere 


Unconformably overlying the metamorphic Aorere strata in the central portion of the area is a 
series of conglomerates, breccias, and argillites, in places highly metamorphic. These have been 
classified as Te" (or Devonian) by past writers, but the authors of this Bulletin have designated 
them as^Haupiri — a new name of no definite age-signification. In general, it is considered that the 
Haupiri rocks are of great antiquity, and that the unconformity between them and the under- 
lying highly metamorphic rocks, though marked, is an inconsiderable one. It is even possible 
that the Haupiri rocks may be of the same age as the upper, or certainly Ordovician, part 
of the Aorere rocks. This point and many others relating to the two series will be elaborated in later 


Associated with the Aorere strata are intrusive igneous rocks of ultra-basic character, now 
metamorphosed into serpentine and talc rocks. With both the Haupiri and Aorere rocks are effusive 
and igneous rocks, of basic and semi-basic character, including porphyrites, diabases, &c, together 
with occasional bands of pyroclastic rocks. The semi-basic and basic rocks are appaiently in part 
coeval with the aqueous sediments of the Haupiri Series. 

i "i • Cutting the Aorere rocks in the central and eastern part of the subdivision are granites, syenites. 
and allied-acidic plutonics. These are possibly more recent than the Haupiri rocks, a question which 


will be discussed later on. 

The Aorere and Haupiri Series, together with the various igneous rocks, form physiographically 
the old land. Overlying them all, in pronounced unconformity, is a series of quartzose conglomerates, 
quartz grits, sandstones, shales, coal-seams, arenaceous and argillaceous limestones, and blue and 
yellow clays. In no part of the subdivision is the whole section of these rocks visible, but scattered 
all over the entire area various portions of the series appear as outliers. These rocks of Miocene age 
have been correlated with the Oamaru Series. 

In the southern part of the subdivision, around Boulder Lake and the head of the Snows and Slate 
Rivers morainic debris occurs over small areas. This debris, and some of the elevated terraces in the 
Aorere Valley, in the Takaka Valley, and along the shore of Golden Bay, are probably of Pleistocene 
age but may be earlier. More recent than these last-named rocks are the gravel-beds of the flood 
plains of the several streams and the sand-dunes appearing in a few places close to the sea-shore. 

The table facing this page represents the geological sequence as proposed by the authors of this 
Bulletin, and the various orders of succession suggested by Dr. Von. Hochstetter, Captain Hutton, 
Professor S. H. Cox, Professor Park, and Mr. A. McKay. These geologists have all conducted work 
at various times in the Parapara subdivision. 






Classification in this Bulletin. 

Pikikiruna Series — 

Wanaka System — 

Sedimentary — 

Conformable to next. — 

Micaceous schists, passing up 


into phyllites and quartzites 
(mouth of Parapara). — 

Aorere Series — \ ^ „• 
Crystalline complex ,*> 2 « 

Aorere Series — 


carbonates. r^s ° 
Crystalline schists 3 " - s 

Crystalline limestone, gneiss, 

(1.) Slates and crystal- | 

Unconformable to — 

and mica schist. — 

Older than Lower Silurian. 

line limestones. 
(2.) Talcose and chlorite 

v. s 

Feldspathic slates and \ 
sandstones; graphitic, tal- 
cose, chloritic, and mica- 


Takaka System — 

(a.) Mount Arthur Series — 
Crystalline Limestone. 

and quartzites. j g "a, 

Metamorphic Strata — 

Riwaka Series — 


ceous schists. 

(o.) Aorere Series — 

Argillites, grauwackes, and 

Gneiss, micaceous slate, 

Hornblende gneiss, and 


Blue slates, with beds 

Quartzites. — Ordovician. 

quartzite, phyllite with fan- 


Gneiss. t 

of feldspathic and 

shaped stratification (Mouut 

quartzose schists. — 

Olympus) ; also granite and 

Slates, sandstones, and breccias. 

Baton Series — \ . 


syenite. Foliated schists 

— Lower Silurian. 

(1.) Black slates. 

(c.) Baton River Series — 

impregnated with auriferous 

(2.) Grey slates. - §«| 

Calcareous slates and 


(3.) Quartzose schists t> ."2 
and quartzites. j 

argillaceous limestone 
with slates and sand- 

(a.) Schistose Rocks rep- ^ 

Te Anaij Series - 

Indurated Sandstones. Red 

Maitai System — 

Hadpiri Series — 

reseating metamor- 

s*. a 

Sandstones, slates, and brec- 

and green breccias. — 

Argillites, red and black 

Conglomerates, breccias, and 

phosed areas of (b.) 

5 5 
Si S 

cias. — Upper Devonian. 


slates, grey and green 

argillites. — Uncertain Paheo- 

(b.) Te Anau series of 

8n O 

sandstones, with occasional 

zoic age, but later than the 

slates, sandstones, 


beds of limestone. 

highly metamorphic Aorere 

and breccias. , 

Granite of Separation Point. — 



Grits, conglomerates, sand- 

{a.) Greensands Series — 

Conglomerates and shales, , £ 

stones and coal (lower coal- 

(1.) Conglomerates, with 

with bitumiuous coal. ^ 

measures). (Not represented 

bituminous coal. 

(Not represented.) [ i *> 

in Parapara subdivision.) 

(Not represented.) 

r " e 

•3 +2 

Oamaru Series — 

(a.) Brown Coal Series— 

Sandstones, shales, and . 

(2.) Ferruginous sand- 

Conglomerates and quartz g 

Coals of Motupipi. \ 

(1.) (a.) Quartzose con- 

Motupupi coal and 

brown coal (upper coal- 

stones, with brown 


drifts, with brown coal. / 6 


brown-coal beds on 





(b.) Sandstones, 

Rangihaieta Head . 

Calcareous sandstone. 


(6.) Ototara Series — 

(1.) Quartz grits and 





shales, coal- 
seams, aud con- 




- o 





cements, passing 





into liEematite. 



(b.) Marine Series — 


(2.) Shelly limestone. 


Limestones, shelly or com- \ •*> 

Takaka and Tata I s 1 a n d J 

(2.) Limestones. 

Motupipi, Rangihaieta 
Head, and Aorere 

(c.) Grey Marl Series — 

pact, 1 | 

1 © 


Valley limestone. 



(1.) Marly greensands, 

Calcareous greensands. I te\ 

passing into (b) 2. 


Blue marls.— Loiter Miocene. (?) 

(2.) Blue and yellow 

Marine marly clays. — Miocene. 

[No special mention of the 

(3.) Blue and yellow clays./ 

(c.) Auriferous conglomer- 


district after this.] 

ates of Aorere Valley and 

Glacier detritus. — 

Older debris. 

Quartz Ranges (perhaps 

Older river - terraces — i.e., i 

Older Pliocene. 

Older pliocene gravels. j 

I Pliocene. 

Old moraines. 

belonging to the drift for- 

older Parapara, Quartz 


mation. [Post-Tertiary.]) j 

Ranges, and Golden Gully 


Old high-level gravels, j 

' and older. 


- <D 

Recent lacustrine and al- "* 

River-terraces o v e r 1 y i n g < ~» 
marls on sea-coast and 

Plains Series — 

Gravel terraces not being added 

Gravel terraces. t 

luvial iulaud formations, 


Gravel terraces and old aurif- 

to, and but little denuded. — 

including auriferous 

^" -*^ 

Waingaromumu Diggings. ' 

erous drifts. — 



S 8 
KB £ 

Newer Pliocene. 

Recent (partly perhaps di- 


Recent river-gravels, raised 

Aeolian Series— 

Newer debris. 

luvial) deposits, with 


beaches, and blown sand. — 

Blown sands. — Pleistocene. 

Sea-beaches, river-beds, and 

moa-remains. ' ^ 

Recent and Pleistocene. 

Alluvial Series — 

River fiats and swamps. — 


Low-level alluvial deposits. — 

drifting sands. — Recent. 

Granites — 

(1.) Metamorphic. 

Parapara h se m a t i t e ) 

Igneous Rocks — \ 

Granite. — Doubtful age. 

deposit. 1 Doubtful 
( a 9&- 

Ultra-basic. [ Post 
Basic and Semi-basic, f Aorere. 

(2.) Eruptive. 

Granite. ) 

Acidic. j 


[To face page '-iO. 


Geological History. 

There is perhaps no phase of geological science more conjectural than that relating to geological 
history. It is especially difficult in New Zealand, where tectonic changes have been so frequent and 
of such diversified character. The particular part of the country being discussed in this Bulletin has 
seen many changes. The extremely complicated topography and geological structure now exposed 
to the observer render the exact extent and full signification of these events most difficult to interpret. 
In consequence, the following remarks on the geological history must be considered partly hypothetical 
and subject to careful revision in the future. 

In very ancient geological times there was deposited in the eastern and central parts of the sub- 
division a great thickness of sediments, which on metamorphism have given a series of crystalline 
complex carbonates, schists, and quartzites. Meanwhile, or possibly at a somewhat later date, bill with 
apparently no pronounced alteration in the position of the sea-floor, in the western part of the area, 
sediments were laid down, which have given us compact argilUtes, grauwackes, and quartzites at the 
present day. The deposition of these rocks was in Ordovician times, as shown by the fossils presenl 
in the carbonaceous argillites ; while the laying-down of the rocks, which are now shown as the com- 
plex carbonates, schists, and quartzites, occurred cither in Ordovician times or at a period of still 
greater antiquity. Subsequent to the deposition of the strata, which on alteration have become the 
crystalline complex carbonates, schists, and quartzites. orogenic movements occurred in the central 
part of the subdivision. By these movements a broad folding of the strata, which elevated part of 
the land above water, was formed. Disintegration of the land at once commenced, and sediments, 
resulting from its decay, were deposited along the new shore-line, but as the strata contain no fossils 
their age is unknown. They are certainly PaJsBOZOic, and may be coeval with the Ordovician strata in 
the western part of the subdivision, for the tectonic movements which folded the strata in the central 
part of the area may not have taken place in the western part. Thus sedimentation may have been 
unbroken in the western part, while in the central part it was interrupted by the uplift. 

As the complex carbonates, quartzites. and schists are apparently conformable with the undoubted 
Ordovician strata, we have made use of the name " Aorere Series," as given by earlier writers, to 
include the whole group ol rocks. But it is distinctly to be understood that no definite age is given 
to the complex carbonates, quartzites, and schists. The general name. " Haupiri Serns." has been 
employed to designate the rocks unconformable with the complex carbonates, schists, and epiartzites 
in the central part of the subdivision. It may be mentioned that these have been called " Devonian " 
by some t:;-.<!i. r writers on Parapara geology, and may be so ; though, in the absence of pakeonto- 
logical or structural data, so definite an age-classitication can hardly be admitted with propriety. 

The volcanic activity, by which the semi-basic and basic igneous rocks were ejected, probably 
began in Aorere times. That it was continued into Haupiri times is shown by the presence of pyro- 
clastics. intercalated with the Haupiri rocks. It is presumed that the centre of vulcanisni was in the 
neighbourhood of the upper Slate River, as judged by the preponderance of basic and semi-basic 
igneous rocks in this locality. Ultra-basic igneous rocks, which occur in a comparatively few localities 
in the Aorere strati. m to indicate a phase of vulcanism before or after the period when the wide- 
spread basic and semi -basic rocks were ejected. It is possible, however, that the ultra-basic rocks may 
be merely a magmatic differentiation of the semi-basic and basic rocks. 

Following Haupiri times a long period of orogenesis ensued. While this deformation was pro- 
ceeding, and perhaps partly as a result thereof, came the intrusion of enormous quantities of acidic 
irruptives. No evidence of these acid igneous rocks being effusive is to be seen in the area, thou'di 
thev may have reached the surface, and all evidences of this fact may since have been removed by 
long-continued erosion. 

Prior to Miocene times, when erosion of the land had well advanced, came a depression of the 
land. A broad channel stretched up the valley of the present Aorere River, and still further 
southwards across the Oouland Downs. At the same time Golden Bay was continued southwards as 
an inlet from the sea, which stretched many miles up the present Takaka Valley beyond the limits of 
the Parapara subdivision. Following Miocene times ensued a period of secular elevation, accompanied 
by faulting on an extensive scale. Gradual uprise of the land was continued practically into modern 


times. Comparatively recently, however, a depression seems to have occurred, as evidenced by the 
broad lagoons at the mouths of the various watercourses. This period of depression seems now to 
have ceased ; but tectonic movements on a small scale are still proceeding, as evidenced by earthquake 
shocks which occurred on the morning of the 12th March, 1907, and for several days thereafter, with a 
severity sufficient to bring down chimneys. 

Since Miocene times part of the Parapara area has been invaded by glaciers. This glaciation was 
apparently limited to the south-central part of the subdivision, where an ice-sheet formed by the 
union of many glaciers from the surrounding mountains occupied the basin of Boulder Lake, and 
flowed out through its southern end, descending in a great ice-fall to the present valley of the Boulder 
River. At the same time a glacier flowed down the valley of Snows River, having its source in 
neve on the Brown Cow and Hardy Ridges, and another fiTed the valley of the Slate, originating in snow 
falling on the Hardy Ridge and on Walker Ridge. It is probable that this period of glaciation occurred 
during Pleistocene times, but the exact date is uncertain, and it may have been partly in Pliocene times. 
The glacial state seems to have been brought about partly by the increased elevation of the land, which 
had risen to great heights since Miocene times, and partly by changed meteorological conditions giving 
a greatly increased precipitation. 

In glacial times the rivers of the district seem to have had much more erosive power than at present 
— a still further evidence of heavy precipitation — as shown by the enormous amount of debris which 
they carried down their courses. Much of this debris still remains as elevated terraces, visible more 
especially along the great rivers, the Takaka and Aorere, and to a less degree along the western shore 
of Golden Bay. The denudation of the land since the elevation after the Miocene subsidence has been 
enormous. The Miocene strata, which formerly covered by far the greatest part of the subdivision, 
have for wide stretches almost completely disappeared, and, even where occurring, the great series is 
often represented by a mere remnant of the formerly extensive rocks. The erosion of the land — fluviatile, 
marine, and subaerial — is still actively proceeding, as the recent flood plains, spacious sea-beaches, 
and broken sand-dunes, all testify. 

General Account of the Structure of the Several Formations. 

The many varied tectonic changes which the Parapara subdivision has undergone, as can be well 
imagined, have produced a most complicated structure. The long-continued erosion, both before 
and after the Miocene subsidence, has apparently intensified this complication by producing a great 
irregularity in the exposure of the several series and formations. 

It has already been mentioned that the corrugation of the rocks of the Aorere and Haupiri Series 
was very great, the rocks having been compressed into tight arches and troughs, sometimes normal, 
but frequently reversed. In general, the structure of these sedimentary rocks is apparently that of a 
great synclinorium. The Haupiri rocks occur near the centre of the synclinorium, accompanying . 
minor pinched-in synclines in the Aorere strata. The general strike of the Aorere and Haupiri rocks 
is about north-north-west, but there are many variations in either direction from regularity. The dip 
varies from verticality to horizontality, though it is generally at high angles. 

The ultra-basic igneous rocks are generally much sheared. The basic and semi-basic igneous rocks 
are fairly massive, but are sometimes rather schistose. The semi-basic, basic, and ultra-basic 
igneous rocks may either cut through the bedding or run parallel to the trend of the Aorere Series. 
The acid igneous rocks are in general but slightly gneissoid. 

The Miocene rocks he for the most part at angles but slightly removed from the horizontal, 
though locally, in the Takaka Valley and elsewhere, the dip is pronounced and at high angles. 

The morainic debris Is quite structureless, being composed of material of heterogeneous character 
laid down by ice without order. The high-level terraces lie almost horizontal, excepting where false 
bedding is shown. 








Page, Page. 

General Physiographic Features .. ..2:5 Watercourses — continued. 

The Old Land .. .. .. 23 (3.) The Golden Bay System .. ..2s 

The Uplands .. .. .. . . -'4 (4.) The Takaka River System .. . . 2!t 

The Modern Coastal and Flood Plain- . . 25 Lakes . . . . . . . . . . :{(t 

The Coast-line .. .. .. ..26 Swamps .. .. ..31 

Watercourses .. .. ..26 Caves .. .. :i| 

(1.) The \\ Y-t ('oast System ..26 Special Glacial Features .. .. .. .'!! 

(2.) '1'he Aorere Rivei System 

General Physiographic Features. 

The Paiapara Bubdivimon contains many features oi geographic interest. The most, conspiououa of 
these are to be seen Erom a point of vantage on the Bea-beaoh near the month of the A.orere River. 
Well outlined against the Bky to the Bouth-west and south, and appearing less prominently in the nearer 
foreground, are the ridges and peaks oi the mountainous interior. Closer at hand are flat-topped 
uplands, with their inner edges abutting against the mountains, and sloping thence with a gradual inclina- 
tion to the sea-shore, where they terminate in places in Bteep cliffs. Cutting deeply into this upland 
country are the valleys of the Aorere and its tributaries, which have formed flood plains but little 
raised above the present level of the various streams which they holder. Nearer the sea the flood 
plains are comparatively extensive and are continued along the sea-margin, as narrow coastal helts, 
little above sea-level. 

Lithologically, the mountainous country lb made up of old rocks —the Aorere and Haupiri Series, 
and the igneous rocks which have been injected into them. It is hence known physiographically as the 
" old land." The upland country, cut deeply l>\- many watercourses, is represented in places by Hat- 
lying or little-tilted Miocene strata, and elsewhere by truncated, steeply inclined, older strata showing 
the ancient sea-shell, on which Miocene strata (now removed by erosion) were originally deposited. The 
uplands form disjointed and faulted blocks of an ancient . oastal plain, which have been warped to their 
present position by movements subsequent to the deposition of the .Miocene strata. The flood plains 
of the various Btreams are composed of recent gravels formed by the denudation of all the older rocks. 

while the narrow coast. d belts dose to sea-level, the result of marine denudation, are also surmounted 

by recenl rocks. At the river and stream mouths, where thev are continuous with flood plains, the 

coastal belts are large enough to be termed coastal plains. 

The main physiographic features in the Parapara ma arc. then, the old land, the uplands repre- 
senting faulted blocks of an ancient coastal plain, and the modern coastal plain junctioiiing with the 
flood plains of the various watercourses. 

The Old Lam> 

The old land may well be described as that portion of the country which stood above the sea during 
the period oi the Miocene subsidence, when a broad arm of the ocean stretched up the valley of the pre- 
sent Aorere River, and still further southward, and also up tin' present Takaka Valley. The old land 
represents physiographically an ancient mountain-range which had probably been maturely dissected 
prioi to Miocene times. It owes fte comparatively great elevation not so much to original folding, 
as to bodily secular movement since the Miocene era. In the Parapara subdivision one sees generally 
the rounded outlines so characteristic of elevated land-surfaces subjected to long-continued subaerial 


Beyond the southern boundary of the area now being considered the mountain-crests an; much 
more seriate than in the Parapara subdivision, and aiguille topography is decidedly common. This 


rugosity is due in part to the fissile nature of the strata, and in part to the deep dissection by the small 
inland streams, a process which has been kept steadily active by the almost constant uplift since Miocene 
times. The almost uniform elevation of the higher peaks to the southward of the subdivision, as well 
as those within its limits, indicates an old base-level of erosion or peneplained surface for the old land- 
area. (Plate I. ) 

That portion of the old land within the boundary of the Parapara subdivision is separated into 
three parts by the Aorere and Takaka Valleys. The Wakamarama Range, lying north-west of the 
Aorere River, is bordered to the south-eastward by a great fault, the exact extent of which cannot 
be fully determined until the area northward of the Parapara subdivision is studied. In consequence, 
the range towards the north has a proportionally greater elevation than other parts of the old land. 
There seems some reason for believing that this fault dies out to the south-westward. 

The Wakamarama Range is for the most part densely forested, though there are patches of open 
pakihi* on its summit. Steep slopes lead up to the crest on the eastern side from the open Aorere Valley, 
while broken spurs descend irregularly on the western side towards the sea-shore, beyond the limits 
of the subdivision. The range is not of great altitude, seldom exceeding 3,500 ft. in height. The most 
conspicuous point is probably Mount Stephens, which has a height of 3,980-7 ft. 

The old land between the Aorere and the Takaka forms the mountainous country stretching south- 
ward and south-westward to and beyond the limits of the Parapara subdivision. These mountains 
are known collectively as the Haupiri Range, and the various ridges between the several streams are 
designated under different names. The eastern part of the Haupiri Range is the prominent ridge known 
as Walker Ridge, stretching northwards from between the Parapara River and the Onakaka Stream to 
the Anatoki River, outside the limits of the subdivision, where Paradise Peak rises to a height of 
5.042 ft. at its southern buttress. After Paradise Peak, the most prominent points along the ridge 
are Mount Christmas. 4,850 ft., and Parapara Peak. 4,098 ft. The long, broken ridge of hills running 
from Slate River Peak, near the head of Slate RiveT, northward between Slate River and Snows River 
is known as Hardy Range. Its most imposing peak is Mount Hardy, a bare rocky knob, 4,926-1 ft. 

The succession of hills, generally bush-clad, lying between Rocky River and Snows River, is 
known as Harris Ridge. It is, for the most part, under 4,000 ft. in height. The conspicuous mountain 
known as the Brown Cow. with two peaks (one 4,000 ft., and the other 4,732 ft.), which rises directly 
from the waters of Boulder Lake on its eastern side (Plate XXI) is continued northward in a low T ridge 
between the headwaters of Boulder Lake and Rocky River. To the west of Boulder Lake rises, bare 
and majestic, the splendid granite mountain of Lead Hill (5,280.9 ft.), the highest and most outstanding 
peak in the area now being considered. 

East of the Takaka Valley, the western slopes of the Pikikiruna Range come partly within the limits 
of the Parapara subdivision. Farther to the eastward, towards the valley of the Riwaka, the range 
rises to 3,000 ft. or more above the sea. 

The Uplands. 

As already remarked, the upland country is represented geologically by Miocene rocks or by the 
great shelf upon which those strata were laid down. The uplands are divided into two distinct por- 
tions — that which occupies the ancient valley of the Aorere, and that which lies in the former continua- 
tion of the southern portion of Golden Bay up the present Takaka Valley, and appears to the east and 
west along the slopes of the old land. These two upland areas come together near the mouth of the 

The upland area which lies within the Aorere Valley (Plates I and II) shows a distinct and decided 
inclination towards the north-west from the base of the block of old land between the Aorere and Takaka 
Valleys to the base of the old land of the Wakamarama Range. The plain is not altogether uniform, since 
the Miocene rocks of which its surface is in part composed are, for wide stretches, completely eroded away, 

* Pakihi (bare) ia a Maori term applied to fiat, open spaces. Pnkihis are generally swampy. 


leaving the old sea-shelf of tilted Palseozoic strata. This unequal erosion has given a faint irregularity 
to the surface and caused the formation of low, Hat-topped buttes composed of Miocene rocks, which 
remain as residuals of erosion. The most prominent of these buttes, or low hills, formed of horizontal 
or little-inclined strata is Table Hill, about two miles south of Bainham. 

At the inner edge of the sloping plain, where the uplands approach 2,000 ft. in height, its general 
continuity is broken mainly by narrow watercourses, but near its north-western edge, in the presenl 
Aorere Valley, it is interrupted by spacious flood plains. The boundary between the modern flood 
plains and the uplands is in many places demarcated by a series' of terraces descending from the level 
of the uplands to that of the plains. 

Outliers from the uplands are prominent on the Aorere flood plains, forming mesas, or flat-topped 
hills, composed of horizontal strata which are the residuum of a formerly more extensive plain 
(Plate II) The terraces along the Aorere are especially conspicuous on the north-west side of the 
stream below Brown River, while the most pronounced outlier from the uplands is the hill between 
Rockville and Bainham on which trigonometrical station T is situated, and which is 617 ft. in height. 
Several terraces descend from this hill to the Kaituna on the north-west and to the Aorere on the 

That portion of the uplands lying along the western shore of Golden Bay consists of a series of 
terraces descending from the old land to the sea-shore. The uplands in this part of the area are broken 
by flood plains — to be later described — at the various river-mouths. In that part of the Takaka Valley 
which lies within the limits of the Parapara subdivision the uplands are represented by no very con- 
tinuous stretch of plain, but are shown by mesas, or outliers, from the plains, and by numerous terraces 
bordering the old land to east and west, and flanking the valleys of the various streams which flow 
out therefrom. The castellate hill on which trigonometrical station C C is situated forms one of the 
most noticeable of the mesas, while the terraces on the eastern side of the valley are especially pro- 

The Modern Coastal and Flood Plains. 

Low-lying plains of any size are limited almost entirely to the borders of the present mam Aorere 
and Takaka Bivers. and to the mouths of the various streams entering Golden Bay between these 

Along the Aorere River the first noticeable flood plain is at Shakespeare Flat, which is situated 
on the southern border of the Parapara subdivision. Below this point flats occur at intervals on 
either side, but are much more common on the north-west side.' The most conspicuous area of flood 
plain is that which is occupied by the fertile farm lands around Rockville, and which stretches west- 
ward to the Kaituna and up the valley of that stream to Bainham. 

Small patches of low-lying coastal belt occur on the peninsula separating the open water of Golden 
Bay from Parapara Inlet, and elsewhere around the shores of the latter. The lower Parapara is bor- 
dered by small stretches of flood plains, which extend from the mouth to beyond Mr. Bassett's house, 
and appear at Richmond Flat and elsewhere. At low tide a wide sand-beach is exposed along the 
shore of Golden Bay from the mouth of Parapara River to Rangihaieta Head. There is, however, 
but little low-lying land permanently above sea-level. At the mouth of the^Tukurua the flat is very 
limited. Along the Onakaka. flood plains extend from the mouth up the main valley as well as up 
the tributary stream, the Otere (Plate ill). There is a considerable flat along the Pariwhakaoho where 
its flood plain coalesces with that of the Puremahaia. Considerable areas of flood-plain border the 
lower Onahau and extend for a short distance along the coast in either direction. 

The valley of the Takaka River, with its large tributaries the Spring, the Anatoki, and the Wai- 
agaro and its distributary the Motupipi shows much the largest stretch of low-lying land in the sub- 
division. This extends along the various streams as spacious flood plains, and continues almost 
uninterruptedly along the coast, as a decided coastal belt, as far as Pohara Bay. The low-lying land 
round the mouth of the Takaka represents the most conspicuous area of modern coastal plain in the 


Sand-dunes occur in several places along the coast-line. At Tukurua Point mid northward towards 

the Parapara lulet they have advanced over fertile grass-covered patches of coastal belt, partly 
destroying their utility. They are also conspicuous northward from the mouth of the Onakaka and 
near the settlement of Clifton. 

The Coast-line. 

The Parapara subdivision has a coast-line of twenty-nine miles, all on Golden Bay and the indenta- 
tions thereof. In general, the coast-line is fairly regular, though there are sheltered inlets at almost 
every considerable entering stream. Of these, the Parapara Inlet, which is situated at the mouth 
of the river of the same name, is the most prominent (Plate IV). It is 100 chains from north to south 
and 55 chains in an east and west direction. At high tide the inlet is practically a landlocked lagoon, 
being connected with the open sea by a channel only a few chains wide, while at low tide it is a spacious 
mud-flat through which ramify the channels of several streams, including the Parapara. The inlets at 
the mouth of the Onakaka, Onahau, and Motupipi streams, though much smaller, are similar in character 
to the Parapara Inlet — that is, they are mud-flats at low tide, and at high tide almost landlocked lagoons. 
Waitapu Bay, at the mouth of the Takaka between Rangihaieta Head and Waitapu Hill, is prac- 
tically bare of water at low tide. The south-eastern corner of the bay has been separated by an 
embankment and jetty, thus forming an artificial harbour (Plate XVII). The irregular-shaped bay 
near Clifton settlement, separated from the open sea by low sandy islets, is bare at low tide, save foi 
the streamlets which meander across its muddy expanse. Entered only by insignificant watercourses, 
Ligar Bay forms an irregularity in the coast-line, with a small marshy lagoon at its head. 

There are no really good harbours for small vessels along the coast-line, though large vessels can 
find good anchorage in the open roadstead of Golden Bay in almost any storm, owing to the protection 
afforded by Farewell Spit. There is a good shelter for small vessels at the Tata Islands, and a fair 
harbour capable of being entered at any state of the tide might be made at Rangihaieta Head, if 
it were not for the probability of its being insilted by the floods of the Takaka River. At high tide 
there is said to be good shelter for small craft just inside the mouth of the Parapara Inlet. It is pro- 
posed to erect a wharf for the shipment of iron-ore near Tukurua Point, which will afford a little shelter 
(see map facing p. 88). In this locality the shore shelves very gradually, as is seen in the lower 
view on Plate III, and it will be necessary to carry the wharf out 67 chains to obtain a depth of 30 ft. 

The various inlets at the embouchures of the watercourses are apparently mainly sunken stream- 
mouths, indicating a recent slight depression in the coast-line since the great and long-continued eleva- 
tion which has occurred since Miocene times. Possibly Parapara Inlet is in part due to the collapse 
of underlying crystalline-carbonate strata. The strong current sweeping northward around the shores 
of Golden Bay is constantly altering the positions of sandbars and shoals. It is very probable that 
the entrance of the Parapara Inlet has been shifted northward about half a mile to its present position, 
owing to its old mouth near Tukurua Point being gradually dammed by silt and sand shifted along 
the shore by this current. The maximum rise of the tide at the entrance of Parapara Inlet is 13 ft., 
while at Takaka the difference between low and high water is not less than 6 ft. at neap tides and 12 ft. 
at spring tides. This tidal range renders practicable the entrance by small craft of the harbours along 
the coast of Golden Bay. 


The stream-system of the Parapara subdivision is for the most part normal and simple, and repre- 
sents in the main a drainage of comparatively recent age superimposed on one of great antiquity. 
However, in the central southern part of the area, in the neighbourhood of Boulder Lake and the head 
of the Snows and Slate Rivers, it has been much complicated by past glacial activity on a somewhat 
extensive scale. The drainage system may be divided into (1) the West Coast system, (2) the Aorere 
River system, (3) the Golden Bay system, (4) the Takaka River system. 

(I.) The West Coast System. — Only very small portions of the rivers flowing to the west coast 
come within the limits of the Parapara subdivision. The Paturau, a river with a total length along its 



N'di i hers End hi Boi ldeh I. ike 

Southekk End oi Bouluek Lake. 

Hi a. llulh tin No. -.'.j 


various bends of'fourteen and one-half miles, has some eight miles of the head-waters of its main branch 
within the boundary, as well as many minor tributaries. In its upper waters the course of th^ main 
river is much broken by small gorges, a condition even more apparent in the minor tributaries. The 
head of Slaty Creek, which flows into Lake Ngutuihe, drains the country around the Golden Blocks and 
Golden Ridge Mines at the extreme north-west of the area now being considered. The main stream 
and its tributaries deeply incise the country. Gorges and falls of small extent break their continuity, 
and rugged hills rise steep and sheer on either side of the various courses. The head-waters of the two 
branches of Sandhill Creek, which lie within the Parapara area somewhat to the south of Slaty, arc 
in general less rapid than the latter. The head- waters of the Anatori and its main branch, Independent 
Creek, which drain the country to the west of Mount Stephens, resemble the headwaters of the Paturau 
in character. 

(2.) The Aorere River System. — By far the greatest part of the Parapara subdivision is drained 
by the Aorere River and its numerous tributaries. The main Aorere diagonally traverses the Aorere 
Survey District in a north-easterly direction giving, if one follows the many windings within the sub- 
division, a watercourse of over seventeen miles. The Aorere is a fine large stream, navigable for canoes 
with little difficulty from Brown River to the mouth, portages being necessary only at some of the larger 
or shallower rapids. From Brown River, almost as far as Denton Creek, the river-valley is wide and 
open, gravel bars and boulder-beached islands are common, while the course of the river is broken by 
shallow rapids (Plate V). Prom Denton Creek to the Slate River much of the river is deeply gorged, 
with long stretches of smooth, deep water broken by short rapids (Plate VI). Near Bainham the river- 
channel is wide, and the water generally shallow and rapid. Below the Slate River the Aorere is wide 
and open, and the water is often shallow, though seldom verv rapid. 

The Aorere below the mouth of Brown River occupies .* very ancient depression, a feature which 

in existence probably long before Miocene times.* During, or following, the elevation <>f the land 
after the Miocene subsidence, faulting occurred along or near the QOrth-weetem side of the old depression, 
resulting in the formation of a trough with one side sloping with very gradual inclination from the 
south-east and with the other side having an abrupt descent from the oorth-west. It was natural 
that the river which originated alter these tectonic movements should occupy the lowest potion of tin- 
trough close to the fault-face, and that the streams which (lowed from the old land to the north-east 
down the tilted slope should be relatively longer and of gradual deecent, while those from the north-west 
should be short and of verv Bteep grade. PhysiographicaUy considered, Brown River, which 
occupies the south-westerly continuation of the trough, represents the main stream, though the branch 
Sowing from the old land to the southward of Brown River is much the longer and hence receives 
the name Aorere. 

Since the birth of the present Aorere, at the deepest pail of the trough the modern valley has steadily 
progressed to the south-ea,st, cutting through the Miocene strata and into the older rocks beneath. 
This has produced at once the flood plain- conspicuous on the north-western bank and the Hanking 
cliil's so frequently met with on the south-eastern Bide. In former times the Aorere flowed down the 
valley of the present Kaituna, and the -mall streams Swamp Creek, Bonny Doon Creek, Parrakeel 
('reek, Victoria Creek— and the head-waters ol the mam Kaituna were -hurt tributaries flowing off the 
fault-face to the north-westward. Later, the Aorere was captured by a tributary stream on the south- 
eastern side of the former river and diverted to its present course. This fact is evidenced by the broad, 
low flood plain stretching through from Bainham to the Kaituna Valley and by the narrow gorges 
through which the river flows above the Slate River. Had the Aorere below Bainham occupied its 
present channel for any considerable time, the valley would have been much wider. The present 
Kaituna flowing down the old valley represents a subsequent stream, while the small stream known 
as Bainham Creek shows obsequent drainage or drainage disposed contrary to the original course. 

As already mentioned, the streams entering the Aorere on the north- west side are small mountain- 
torrents. The two apparent exceptions to this rule are the Kaituna Stream — the lower part of which, 
as already explained, is in reality an old channel of the Aorere — and Brown River, which is the actual 

* Cox, Geol. Hop. No. 16, 1884, p. 68; and Trana. \.Z. Inst., Vol. xvi, 1883. 


continuation of the main river. The other streams joining t Ik- Amen' or this side present no feature 
especially noteworthy. The most prominent of them, named from Brown .River downward, are 
Fossil Creek, Walsh Creek, Eliot Creek, Seventeen-mile Creek, Fifteen-mile Creek, Silver Stream, 
and Bainham Creek. 

There are a number of large streams entering the Aorere on the south-eastern side, and all represent 
original consequent drainage — that is, drainage resulting from the position of the strata. These streams 
originally flowed down the dip of the Miocene strata. Now. however, all of them have cut through 
the Tertiary beds, and, in addition, have in many cases deeply incised the underlying old rocks. The 
principal streams joining the Aorere on this side are Clark River, Salisbury Creek, Boulder River, Little 
Boulder River, Slate River, Doctor Creek, and Appo's Creek. 

The Clark is a large stream rising outside of the subdivision and flowing to the west of Lead Hill. 
In its head-waters south of the boundary the stream is flowing in a broad channel sculptured by glacial 
erosion, but within the limits of the Parapara subdivision the valley is narrow and irregular, and in 
it flows the rapid stream broken by occasional small falls and frequent gorges. Salisbury Creek through 
most of its course flows in a series of deep narrow gorges with mural precipices rising on both sides. 

Boulder River is formed by the union of several small streams entering Boulder Lake. From 
the lake to the Aorere the river has a length of a little over six miles. Leaving Boulder Lake the stream 
has a sudden descent of 200 ft. in a waterfall of great beauty, and for about a mile is broken by a series 
of wild cascades over enormous boulders. The valley, however, is wide, open, and fairly straight 
(Plate VII). The lower five miles of the river is rapid, but the fall is of even and gradual gradient. 
Gorges are common, and at one point, about three miles above the mouth, the rock cliffs on their sides 
almost completely enclose the stream, forming a natural bridge. The upper part of the river near 
Boulder Lake has been strongly influenced by glacial activity (Plate VII). The ff.ll near the lake 
indicates the extent to which the stream has cut back into the granite cliff, over which the ice formerly 
fell, while, in the cascades below, the river is tumbling over the debris cast down by the ancient glacier 
The Little Boulder, formed by the union of several branching rapid-filled streams deeply furrowing 
their way into the uplands, presents no physiographic features of remarkable interest. 

The Slate River, which forms the principal affluent of the Aorere, has several large tributaries, 
the chief being Whitehorn Creek, Kill Devil Creek, Snows River, and Rocky River. The main Slate 
River, which rises near Paradise Peak and Slate River Peak, has a course of nearly fifteen miles. In 
its very headwaters, just below the two peaks above mentioned, is a spacious cirque into which small 
trickles of water flow from the surrounding hills and unite to form the stream. For some miles a broad 
U-shaped glacial valley is to be seen showing ice excavation, and then the river resumes the normal 
condition of small streams in this district — namely, a rapid, crooked watercourse, now flowing with 
even descent in a boulder-rilled bed bordered by gravelly banks, again flowing more swiftly, with occa- 
sional cascades, in wild, deep gorges. At intervals are smooth, broad pools, often of great beauty. Owing 
to the numerous deeply cut and precipitously walled gorges, the river is a very difficult one to traverse 
on foot. 

Snows River rises in a loftily situated cirque, and flows for several miles in a broad glacial valley. 
In the lower four miles of its course the river is very much broken by long cascades and by deep gorges. 
It was the wild nature of the stream which prevented the diggers from using Snows River as a high- 
way in the early days to the rich auriferous alluvium near its head. The most prominent fall — Dog 
Fall — is situated some four miles above the junction of the river with the Slate. The fall over a sill 
of altered igneous rock is of great beauty, with a total drop of about 30 ft. 

Rocky River, which rises at the base of the Brown Cow Mountain, has a length with its numerous 
bends of about eight miles. The channel of this stream shows no very definite evidence of past glacial 
excavation. The river pursues its crooked course, now broken by rock-girt gorges, now flowing rapidly 
in a boulder-strewn bottom. Doctor Creek and Appo's Creek are both small streams which ramify 
through the upland country between the Slate River and the Parapara. 

(3.) The Golden Bay System. — The principal streams entering Golden Bay independent of the 
two main river-systems are the Parapara, the Tukurua, the Onakaka, the Pariwhakaoho, the Pure- 
mahaia, and the Onahau. 



View in Lead Hill, showing Basin oi Lake Clara, from Brown Cow Ridge. 

Ice-worm Slopes on Lead Hill — Lake Clara in Foreground. 

Geo. Bulletin No. 8.] 


The Parapara River has many tributaries rising close to the Slate River on the western slopes of 
Parapara Peak and on the ridge passing northward from that physical feature. Like all the rivers 
Bowing from the old land and ploughing deeply into the upland country, it is a rough and broken 
stream. Its Length is about eight miles. In times of Hood the Parapara carries a great deal of water. 
which, if conserved in a reservoir by a dam constructed at a convenient place, would be of great 
economic value for hvdraulic purposes. Such a locality could be found by damming either the gorge 
below Richmond Flat or that below Grueby Flat. Springs of exquisitely clear water spout out along 
the sea-shore at the base of some irregular cliffs of limestone at the north-western corner of Parapara 
Inlet, and form at low tide a large stream flowing to join the water of the Parapara stream, meandering 
across the mud-flat. 

The Parapara River in its lower course appears to flow along the deepest part of a fault-formed 
trough. The fault system which has caused this is no doubt identical with that in which the deep 
leads of wash in Appo'a Flat. Golden Gully, &c. are involved. 

The Tukurua. with a length of a little over four miles, is one of the easiest streams in the area under 
consideration to ascend on foot. Its course is rapid, hut broken by no falls of magnitude. 

The Onakaka, a stream of somewhat greater length than the Tukurua and of greater volume, 
drains the eastern slopes of the ridge running northward from Parapara Peak. Near its head-waters 
springs are very common in the country occupied by the crystalline carbonates. Two falls, close 
together, the upper, known as the Little Bridal Veil, some U) ft.* in height, and the lower, known as 
the Bridal Veil, some 120 ft.* in height, occur some two and a half miles above the mouth of the river. 
Both falls would be of value for water-power. 

The Pariwhakaoho and its many tributaries drain the eastern slopes of Parapara Peak and the 
spur jutting to the north-eastward therefrom. In its upper waters the rivet is broken by numerous 
cascades, while near its mouth it meanders across a spacious flood plain. 

The Puremahaia and the Onahau are both small, rapid streams, much gorged in their head-waters. 

(4.) The Takdka Rivet System. Very little of the Takaka Rivei system lies within the boundaries 
of the Parapara subdivision. The main river, flanked by occasional terraces, meanders in broad bend- 
through a fertile flood plain, receiving on its left bank the Waingaro, \uatoki. and Spring Rivers. At 
its junction with the Waingaro the Takaka carries very little water, and a short distance above, in 
ordinary weather, is completely dry, the water of the river passing through the limestone strata. The 
Takaka becomes tidal one and a half miles above its mouth. 

Like the Aorere, the Takaka Valley is a very ancient feature, possibly dating back to pre- 
Miocene times. It is bounded on either side by considerable faults, ori ginating after the Miocene period. 
and may therefore be regarded as i graben superimposed on a valley of erosion. 

Very little of the Waingaro or of the Anatoki River is within the Parapara subdivision. Both 
are large streams, carrying a considerable volume of water. The Anatoki enters the Takaka by two 
mouths, of which the older and lower one is now the -mailer. The water originally flowed altogether 
by this channel, from which it is said to have been diverted by a fallen tree. The Anatoki is the most 
rapid of the larger tributaries of the Takaka River. 

The Spring River, rising in the well-known Bubu Spring, receives a short distance below its 
source the waters of the Waikoromumu, a stream draining the south-eastern -lopes of Parapara Peak 
and Walker Ridge. The upper half of the course of the Waikoromumu is in crystalline-carbonate 
strata, and the stream-bed is ordinarily dry. The Bubu Sprint.', situated about one and a half miles 
above the junction of the Spring River with the Takaka, is a very remarkable physical feature. The 
spring rises with strong ebullition, forming a pool of beautifully clear water, some 5 chains long by 
3 chains wide, and is said to have a constant volume, being unaffected by the heaviest rain. The water 
is -upposed to come from the Takaka River, which gradually disappears beneath the surface of the 
limestone strata some distance south of the Parapara subdivision boundary. 

The Motupipi, a distributary of the Takaka on the eastern side, leaves the Takaka River 
about three miles above its mouth and enters the Motupipi Lagoon. In ordinary meteorological condi- 

* These heights we barometric. 


(dons the upper part of the stream is dry, though the lower part always carries considerable water. In 
time of flood some of the water of the Takaka finds its way to the sea by this channel. Just below 
the debouchure of the Motupipi from the Takaka a channel of the Takaka known as the Takakau leaves 
the main river, which it rejoins some two miles to the northward. This channel is usually dry in its 
upper part, though lower down it carries a considerable amount of water. Dry River, Kitty Creek. 
Gibson Creek, and Ellis Creek, which drain the western slope of the Pikikiruna Range within the 
Parapara subdivision, all enter the Motupipi River. As the lower two-thirds of their courses are 
through limestone strata, these portions are ordinarily dry. 

Good water-power has already been mentioned as being obtainable from the Parapara and Ona- 
kaka Streams. There are many other streams in the area which would be available for this purpose. 
Most prominent among these is the Boulder River, which has an unfailing reservoir in Boulder Lake at 
3,224 ft. above the sea, and this supply could be augmented by the waters from Lake Clara, 
quite 1,000 ft. above Boulder Lake. 

The following table will show the volume of the principal streams in the Parapara subdivision : — 

Approximate Discharoe of Streams. 


Where Measured. 

Condition, and Remarks. 


in Feet per 


in Cubic 
Feet per 


Aorere River 

At Rockville Bridge 

Two days after Hood 

April 18 



• • 

At Bainham suspension- bridge 


,. 13 



• • 

1J miles below Brown River 


„ 10 




Kaituna River 

1 mile above Aorere junction . 


.. 13 



Slate River 

Near Slate Sluicing-claim 

Fairly high, two days after flood 

., 18 



Rocky River 

1J miles above Slate junction . 


,. 12 



Snows River 

i mile above junction 


.. 12 



Brown River 

\ mile above Aorere junction . 





Clark River 

Near Aorere junction 

Very low- 

Feb. 1.5 



Parapara River . . 

Above dam 

Fairly high, two days after flood 

April 18 


59 1 

Onakaka River . . 

Near Scadden's house 

Ordinary, two days from flood 

,. 19 



Pariwhakaoho River 

Near main road 

,, ,, 

„ 19 



Puremahaia River 


„ „ 

„ 19 



Onahau River 

Main forks 

,, ,, 

„ 19 



Takaka River 

At main bridge 

Tide out . . 

„ 20 



Spring River 

At new bridge 


„ 20 



Anatoki River 

Near Takaka junction 

18 in. above normal 

„ 20 



* This result is probably affected by tide water. 

( 'ross-sections of the larger streams are shown in the diagrams facing this page. 


There is only one natural lake in the Parapara subdivision — namely, Boulder Lake (Plates IX and X) 
— situated on the extreme southern boundary. Boulder Lake, which has a length from north to south of 
70 chains, a breadth in the opposite directions of 30 chains, and a total surface-area of 151 acres, forms 
a most charming feature. As will be seen by a study of the map and sections of Boulder Lake accom- 
panying this Bulletin, the lake is of considerable depth, and forms a sure reservoir for a water-supply 
in all kinds of weather. The lake is undoubtedly the result of glacial excavation. Its basin forms a 
great cirque, completely encircled by a ridge of hills, running from the most northern peak of the Brown 
Cow round to Lead Hill. In glacial times ice probably descended from all the surrounding hills, and 
the united force of all these glaciers was sufficiently great to excavate the deep trough. It is probable 
that in pre-glacial times there was some depression or valley where the lake is now situated, as it lies 
along the contact between old sedimentary rocks and the acid igneous rocks. 

Boulder Lake was formerly of greater size, and stretched up the valley of the stream now entering 
on the south from Green Saddh for about half a mile. This part of the former lake is now occupied 

To accompany Bulletin N$ 3 

$u Authority . Jv*>n Marknu. 6ov*rnm*nt Pr'tnUr, 


Tc accompany Bulletin, N$ 3 







40 ft. to an inch. 

' ' 1 

Average surface velocity 2 01 ft per sec 


!/ z mile above junction with Takaka R. 

Scale. 20 ft. to an inch. 

Average surface velocity I -47 ft. per sec 


'A mile bel ow junction with Browns R. 
Scale. an inch. 

Average surface velocity 2. 2 ft. per sec 


At Rockville Bridge 

Scale 40 ft. to an inch. 

Average surface velocity 121 ft. per ace 

At Bainham Suspension bridg e. 
Scale. 40 ft. to an inch. 


Average surface velocity OSS ft per »ec 


One mile above junction with Aorere R. 

Scale. 10 ft. to an- inch. 

Average surface velocity 102 ft. per sec 

Scale. 10 ft. to an inch. 


At new bridge . 
Scale. 20 ft. to an inch. 

Av*.' , 3g«. iurf<c« rutocrtv 

2 ZZ ft p*r »«e 

Average surface velocity 3 SI ft per 

Sections ill ustrating the volumes of principal streams 
Parapara Subdivision. 

J)ra.wn by RP.Grevi.U-e 

By Authority : John AFacArty. 6o<i*mmtnt Pnntir, 












r \ 








o _ 






















by a grassv flat which is steadily gaining ground (Plate XXII). Elsewhere around the lake gravel fans 
at the various streamlet-mouths testify to further reduction in size. The present outlet to Boulder 
Lake is at its extreme north-western end. where, as already mentioned, a high fall occurs. In glacial 
times some of the ice sought exit from the basin by a channel a few hundred yards to the northward. 
This channel will be described later in connection with the special glacial features. 

Near Boulder Lake, but actually outside of the Parapara subdivision, are several small tarns 
(Plate XII). The two tarns occurring near Boulder Lake to the south occupy depressions in the 
morainic drift. The beautiful clear-watered pond known as Lake Clara (Plate XI), just below the 
summit of Lead Hill, over 4.000 ft. above the sea. is the result of glacial gouging. Though small, it 
is relatively deep, as a glance at the special map and sections of Boulder Lake will show. A morainic 
dam pierced by its outlet borders the tarn on the north-eastern side, while elsewhere granite cliffs, 
beautifully smoothed, rise precipitously around its shores (Plate XI). 

The Slate River Sluicing Company's dam on Stanton Creek forms an artificial lake about 46 acres 
in extent. Near Mr. H. P. Washbourn's house there are two artificial ponds of inconsiderable size. 

Though much of the pakihi country near Rockville is wet. there are almost no true swamps actually 
within the subdivision. In Washbourn Block, near Parapara Inlet, there is a small marshy area 
of no consequence. The shores of Parapara Inlet, Onakaka Inlet. ic, which have already been de- 
scribed, are bordered in place- by salt marshes which contain but little water at ordinary high tides. 

( AVES. 

Like all areas containing large exposures of limestone, caves of greater or lesser size occur wherever 
these rocks outcrop in the area. Some of these are mere pockets, while others are of fair proportions. 
The well-known cave at Motupipi, in Miocene limestones, is remarkable for its beauty, but the 
dimensions are not great. The cave shows an unbranched tunnel, ti chains in length and a lew yards 
at the most in width. Its height i- seldom more than 15 ft., and i- in places reduced to 3 ft. Stalac- 
tites are common, though stalagmites are comparatively rare. At times a small stream Hows through 
the cave, but in dry weather there is little or no water. 

Lash's Cave, al Rockville, also in Miocene limestone-, is a very beautiful feature. It consists of 
a long winding tunnel with a few branches and a somewhat irregular floor. As at Motupipi. stalag- 
mites are rare, but stalactites of bizarre and irregular shape are common. These are cylindrical or 
tapering in shape, of shawl or blanket pattern, and even exceedingly tine and needle-like. 

The caves which occur in the limestone buttes near the Bedstead Road, are probably the most 
extensive in the Parapara subdivision. There are at least two large caves and probably manv smaller 
ones in the largest butte. One of these traverses the butte, with many branches. It is exceedingly 
damp, and though of large proportions it is not of great beaut v. afl stalactites are generally rare, and 
in places lacking altogether. The other cave is more beautiful, since its form simulates a galleried 
domed edifice. Moa-bones are said to have been found within this cave. 

On the Aorere, near Bainham, are some small caves which have a romantic history, in that they 
formed a refuge for Maoris retreating from their enemies in the early days. 

Sink-holes and depressed areas are common on the surface wherever the Miocene limestones or 
the Aorere crystalline complex carbonates are exposed. There are a great many such holes near the 
head of the aikoromumu and in the carbonate strata stretching northward from that point to Para- 
para Inlet. The possibility of Parapara Inlet itself having resulted from the downsinking of an area of 
limestone has already been mentioned. It also seems probable that Appo's Flat originated in a similar 

Special Glacial Features. 

The area stretching westward to Boulder Lake from the headwaters of the Slate River exhibits, 
as already mentioned, many interesting remnants of former glacial activity. The lateral moraines 


on Snows River, particularly near the mouth of Bray Creek, are conspicuous hillocks of heterogeneous 
glacial debris. On the slopes of the hills rising to the north of Boulder Lake some small lateral moraines 
are visible, and to the south of the lake a particularly characteristic lateral moraine stretches up the 
valley of the small stream entering the lake at this point. Several small streams cut through this 
moraine from tarns situated in depressions on its surface. 

The valley of the Boulder River, near Boulder Lake, is occupied by an ancient terminal moraine. 
Mention has been made of the glacial origin of Lake Clara, and of Boulder Lake, and of the two channels 
by which outflowed the ice formerly occupying the basin of the latter. Boulder Lake debouches by 
the more northern of the two channels, and the present Boulder Stream has cut back for some distance 
into the original beautifully smoothed face, over which the ice fell. The more northern channel is 
separated from the southern by a low ridge surmounted by roches moutonnees on a splendid scale 
(Plate XII). Both slopes of the ridge are beautifully striated, smoothed, and even-furrowed, as are 
also the slopes of the more southerly channel, rising towards the crest of Lead Hill. The conical summit 
of the ridge between the two channels is striated, which shows that the ice formerly overrode this feature. 
LongTago the glaciers departed from the basin of Boulder Lake, and now even in winter snow seldom 
lies on the grassy flats around its margin. 


y ^ ' " 

r "*. ' 

»»» ... « 

*. * 

» . • \ ■''.-■■,■'• 




«&&*¥** i 

Li'2 ^V^ Iv^ 

• ■ 



Datibi Pond, \ Mountain-tars neah Bouldeh Lake 

(?eo. Hull' tin No. ■!.] 








33 I 


General Distribution and Structure 







(1.) The Complex Carbonates 


(2.) The Chertv Quartzites 



(3.) The Schist 



(a.) Biotite Schists . . 


(b.) Muscovite Schists 



(c.) Graphite Schists 

. . 42 

Petrology — continued. 

3.) The Schists— tout i mini, 
(d.) Chlorite Schists 
(e.) Mica Carbonate Schists 
(/.) Amphibolites 

Argillites, Grauwackes, and 
Friction Breccias 






The rocks of the Aorere Series, which arc the most widely distributed in the district, consist of crystalline 

complex carbonates, schists, chertv quartzites, phyllites, argillites, sandstone-quartzites. and grati- 
wackes. Between all of these more or less individual types there is every possible phase of lithological 

Of this great series only the carbonaceous argillites occurring with interbedded grauwackes and 
sandstone-quartzites on Slaty Creek, in the western part of the subdivision, are of known age — namely, 
Ordovician. This is the only locality in the subdivision in winch fossils of any kind have been found 
in the Aorere rocks. Many of the unfossiliferous argillites. grauwackes. and Bandstone-quartzites 
occurring west of the Aorere River are probably of the same age as those which have been proved 
Ordovician, since they are perfectly conformable, and agree almost exactly in lithological composition. 

The schists of various kinds, the chertv quartzites, and complex carbonates that cover most of the 
country occupied by the Aorere Series east of the Aorere are also apparently conformable with the 
known Ordovician rocks, but they may be older, or coeval with them. Approximate contemporaneity 
is the most likely position, since the crystalline rocks, with the exception of the complex carbonates, 
would constitute the metamorphic equivalents of the known Ordovician strata. Thus the argillites 
and grauwackes would have their metamorphic counterparts in the mica schists; the carbonaceous 
argillites in the graphiti • sch|ste : the sandstone-quartzites in the hard, vitreous, and almost entirely 
recrystalli/.ed chertv quartzites. 9\, _ d an increasing metamorphism is distinctly visible in a 

section made from west to east, though it is remarkable that amid comparatively little altered strata 
in the western part more highly metamorphic beds are observable, while among the inu-i thoroughly 
changed crystalline rocks in the central and eastern pari argillites and grauwackes are to be seen almosl 
identical in lithological composition with those of the extreme western part. These apparent ex- 
ceptions to the general rule of increasing metamorphism from west t ( , easl are. for the most part, 
explicable by local conditions of decreased or increased metamorphic influence. The boundary 
between the argillites, grauwackes, and sandstone quartzites, and the metamorphic members of the 
series is indicated on the geological map by a dotted line. The position of this line is, however, 
necessarily somewhat arbitrary, owing to the change from the less altered to the metamorphic rocks 
being a gradual one. The greater metamorphism in the eastern part of the area occupied by the Aore e 
rocks is due possibly in part to an increased plication of the strata, but mainly to the great 
quantity of igneous rock injected into this portion of the series. To sum up, though it seems quite 
possible that the crystalline rocks may be of the same age — namely, Ordovician — as the fossiliferous 
sediments, it must be confessed that this conclusion is somewhat hypothetical, and some of them may 
be older. For the time being, the question of the age of the crystalline strata must remain debatable. 
Among the crystalline rocks of the Aorere Series the complex carbonates appear to occupy in general 
an inferior position. 
3— Karamea. 


Generai Distribution and Structure. 

Apart from the valleys of the Aorere and Takaka Rivers, which are covered mainly by Miocene 
strata, and a few small areas occupied by beds of the Haupiri Series, or by igneous intrusions, the Aorere 
rocks are developed throughout the whole subdivision. 

The plication of the strata has been enormous, the rocks having been folded into a series of very 
closely compressed troughs and arches, which have a general trend of about north-north-west, with 
many variations from regularity. Isoclinal folding is more general than open regular folding. In 
addition to this intense longitudinal folding, there is a minor transverse deformation, which has 
given the anticlines and synclines a pronounced pitch in a general direction of either north-north-west- 
ward or south-south-eastward. The exact nature of so complex a structure is most difficult to decipher : 
but, in general, it may be said that the series is folded into a great s nclinoriurn having its main axis 
crossing the southern boundary of the subdivision at about thirteen miles from the south-eastern corner 
■MiA at about twelve miles from the south-western corner. At a point about seven and a half miles north 
of the southern boundary of the subdivision the axis lies about fifteen and three-quarter miles from the 
eastern boundary, and nine and a quarter miles from the western limit. The strike of the strata 
naturally follows the trend of the folding, though there is frequent and pronounced departure from this 
uniformity. In place , especially in the neighbourhood of the igneous rocks, the strike is very irregular. 
The dip of the rocks varies from angles approaching horizontality to verticality. 

Many of the Aorere rocks, especially the argillites and phyllites, show very decided cleavage, and, 
though this structure sometimes runs parallel to the bedding planes, again it crosses them at varying 
angles (Plate XVI). The foliation planes in the crystalline rocks are also at times disposed parallel 
to the bedding planes, and at times traverse them. The Aorere rocks are all much jointed, though this 
feature is more conspicuous in the massive grauwackes and carbonates than in the more argillaceous 
and micaceous strata. Fissures are^also of common occurrence, and in places faults of great magni- 
tude occur. A great fault, with an enormous throw alonu the eastern base of the Wakamarama 
Range, dislocates the Aorere strata as well as more recent rocks, while another seems apparent along 
the western base of the Pikilriruna Range. A pronounced break, disrupting the Aorere strata and 
younger rocks, runs from the shore of the Parapara Inlet through Glen Gyle, and farther south- 

The metamorphic rocks of the Aorere Series in the central part of the subdivision are overlain by 
the rocks of the Haupiri Series, the unconformity being marked by beds of conglomerate. The 
relationship between the Haupiri rocks and the fossiliferous Aorere rocks is not obtainable, as the two 
terrains are nowhere in a contiguous position. The possibility of the Haupiri rocks being of the same 
age as the fossiliferous Aorere rocks has already been mentioned. The Haupiri argill tea bear in places 
a marked resemblance to the less metamorphosed Aorere rocks of similar lithological composition, 
and in many places difficulty was experienced in the field in distinguishing the rocks of the two series. 
The very pronounced unconformity between the Aorere rocks and the rocks of the Oamaru Series is 
visible in many parts of the area now being described. 


Introduction. — Up to the present, fossils have been obtained in the Aorere Series only from Slaty 
Creek and its branches, in the western part of the subdivision. These fossils are graptolites, 
occurring, as already remarked, in a carbonaceous argillite. The best -preserved specimens were 
obtained from a band about 8 in. wide not far from the Aorangi Mine. The chitin is replaced mainly 
by pyrite. The general form of the graptolites has been retained, but the finer details of structure 
have been destroyed. Some of these forms were figured by Sir James Hector,* and they have been 
regarded as equivalent to the Ordovician graptolites of Victoria and New South Wales. t 

Detailed Description. — The descriptions and accompanying figures apply only to specimens obtained 
during the present survey. 

* "Outline of New Zealand Geology," 1886, p. 8*2. | Hutton, .Q.J.G.S, vol. xli, p. 199. 


(1.) Rastrites sp. (PI. VIII, fig. 1.) 

The small forms with free hydrotheca' very possibly belong to this genus. (Of. R. distans and 
R. peregrimis, Lapw.)* 

(2.) Didymogroftus extenms, Hall, sp. (Figs. 2-5.) 

Branches of uniform width (2 mm.), except near the sicula (where they are 1 mm.). Distally 
tapering for the last 7 nun. to a point. Branches diverge at 180°. Maximum length of a branch 
56 mm. Sicula distinct though small, projecting from dorsal side of hydrosome. 13 hvdrothecce 
in 1 cm., inclined to axis of branch at about 150° ; overlapping, rectangular in side view, free for half 
their length. Length of hydrotheca- twice breadth. Apertural angle about 80°. Aperture some- 
what concave. 

The characters observed seem to agree fairly well with the descriptions given by Hopkinson and 
Lapworth, and by McCoy. | 

(3.) Didymograj}tu8 eaduceus, Salter. (Figs. 6-12.) 

Length of each branch 26 mm., breadth 4 nun., narrowing proximally to 3'5 mm. Branches 
diverge in largest specimens at about 340°. except closeHo origin, where angle is less. Proximal part 
of sicula projects dorsally 1 nun. or more. In the younger stages, and probably in mature stages also, 
a fine straight hair 4 or 5 mm. long is given off from the proximal end of the sicula. 10 hydrotheca^ 
to 1cm. Hydrotheca' inclined to axis of branch at 270" on the average. The hydrothecse have a 
length about three and a half times their breadth and are slightly^ convex upwards. Lower lip 
produced into a fairly stout somewhat reHe.xed process. 

The fine process is a hair, and not the edge of another branch. The specimens thus confirm the 
remarks made by McCoy and Hall.} The distinctive detail described by Hall§ could not be followed 
in our specimens. 

The broader form (fig. 12) is assigned to this species for the reasons given by .McCoy. || 

Tetragraptus quudribrachiatits. Hall. sp. (Fig. 13.) 

Main axis straight, 4 mm. long. Branches probably equal, in two pairs. Ventral Eace of each 
branch somewhat convex. 9 or 10 hydrothecse ill each branch. Inclination to main axis about 120". 
Length of hydrotheca' about three times their width. Free for about two-thirds of their length. 
Apertural margins apparently simple. Apertural angle about 75°. 

On comparing the figures given by Etheridge^ with thai of McCoy.** it would seem thai the 
Aorere specimen comes within the limits of the species, although'. smaller than that described and 
figured by Hopkinson and Lapworth. ft 

The large specimen (fig. 14) is too incomplete to be certainly identified. 

Loganograptiu octobraehiatus, Hall. sp. (Figs. I"> and 16.) 

Polypary of 7 or 8 branches. The polypiferous part of each branch increases gradually in width 
from 1 mm. to 3 mm., but branches of the same individual vary in their general outline. Maximum 
length of a branch 20 mm. Sicula distinct, though va J small. 1 1 hydrotheca' in I cm. Shape of 
apertures varies somewhat, probably owing to differences in compression and preservation, but is 
generally strongly concave, with probably a small spine on the lower lip. The proximal hydrothecse 
are small, free for about half their length, and without prolonged lips. 

The specimen differs from McCoy's figure of GraptoliUs octobraehiatus^ in the length of the 
branches, but may be damaged or of abnormal growth. §§ 

dimaeoffraptus sp. (Fig. 17.) 

Sicula not distinguishable. Hydrothecse 12 or 13 to 1 cm., set at right angles to axis of hydrosome. 

Length less than twice breadth. The hydrotheca' show signs of enlargement towards their apertures. 
The specimens obtained can only doubtfully be placed under Climacograptus, and the writers 
were unable to compare them with climacograpti from elsewhere. 

* No. 7. p. 313, pL x. (The uumber refers to the lisl r NO. :i. pi. iii, figs. 5-8. 

'of literature" at the end of this section.) **No. 4. pi. ii. fig. I. 

t No. 6, p. <i4 - _\ i'nil No. a. p. 29, pi, x\. fitr. 1. tfNo, <i. p. 650, pi. xxxiii. figs. 9a and 96. 

{No. .">. p. 31, and No. 11, p. 69. JJ No. 4, pi. ii, tig. 4. 

§l.c. p. mi. §§See also Hall, No. Hi. p. 67", 
|| No. 5, p. 31. 

3* — Karamea. 


Diplograptus, sp. (Fig. 18.) 

Sicula not evident. Hydrothecse about 10 to 1 cm., apparently standing at right angles to branch 
and completely united. Shape and proportions not ascertainable. Apertures strongly concave. 

The specimens are too obscure for complete identification ; possibly they may be damaged climaco- 

Phyllograptus typus, Hall. (Figs. 19 and 20.) 

General outline variable. Sicula not clear, but probably large. 11 hydrothecse in 1 cm., with 
proximal end of each inclined to " midrib " at about 75°. " Midrib " nearly 2 mm. wide. Apertures 
exhibit concave profile, and are possibly prolonged below into a short spine. The following are measure 
ments of five different specimens : — 



Specimens Nos. 4 and 5 are probably immature. 

The Aorere specimens would thus seem to share something of the variation noticed in Aus- 
tralian examples of this species by McCoy.* 

Time- distribution or Aorere Graftolites. 
















Northern Hemisphere. 


Characteristic of Llandovery. 

Didymograptm extenaus 

Lower Ordovician 

Lower Arenig. 

Didymograptm caduceus 

Llandeilo or Arenig 

Upper Ordovician of Canada. 

Trtragraptus quadribrachiatus . . 

Lower Ordovician 

Middle Arenig. 

Loqanograptus octobraelriatus . . 

Lower zones of Lower Ordovician 

Skiddaw (Eth. A.N.H. 1874, p. 4|. 

flint acoaraptus 

Bottom of Ordovician to top of Lower Silurian. 


Bottom of Ordovician to top of Lower Silurian. 

PJn/Uogra plus typus .. 

Characteristic of Arenig. 

From this table it will be seen that in New Zealand a number of graptolites occur, which in Europe 
are characteristic of zones of widely differing age. There can be no doubt, however, that the specimens 
described from the Aorere Series are found at the one horizon, for specimens of Tetragraptus, Didy- 
mograptus, Loganograptus, Diplograptus, Climacograptus, and Phyllograptus may all be found on 
one slab. In Australia almost the same association of graptolites occurs, - )* and it is therefore evident 
that the Aorere rocks are homotaxial with the Ordovician of Victoria and New South Wales. 


1. 1871. Hopkinson, J. " On Dicellograptus, a new Genus of Graptolites." Geol. Mag., vol. viii, 

p. 20. 

2. 1873. Lapworth, C. " Improved Classification of Rhabdophora." Geol. Mag., vol. x, pp. 500 

and 555. 

3. 1874. Etheridge, R., jun. " Observations on Graptolites from Lower Silurian Rocks of Victoria." 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. xiv, p. 1. 

4. 1874. McCoy, F. " Prodromus of Palaeontology of Victoria." Decade i. Published by Victorian 

Geological Survey. 

5. 1875. McCoy, F. " Prodromus of Palaeontology of Victoria." Decade ii. 

6. 1875. Hopkinson and Lapworth. " Graptolites of Arenig and Llandeilo Rocks of St. David's." 

Q.J.G.S.. vol. xxxi, 1875. 

No. 4, p. 7, pi. i ; No. 3, p. 3, pi. hi. f See No. 13, p. 202 ; and 14, p. 165. 

Plate VIII 







(J \s^ """- «»,.|I W COW" 







Graptoiites of the Aorere Series, 


7. 1876. Lapworth, C. " On Scottish Monograptidse." Geol. Mag., new series, Dec. ii, vol. iii. 

8. 1876. Nicholson, H. A. " Correlation of Graptolite Deposits of Sweden with those of Britain." 

Geol. Mag.. Dec. ii. vol. iii. p. 245 

9. 1886. Hector. James. " Outline of New Zealand Geology." Wellington, Government Printer. 

10. 1895. Hall. T. S. " Geology of Castlemaine." Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, vol. vii. new series, 

p. 67. 

11. 1896. Hall, T. S. " Notes on Didymoyraptus caduceus, Salter, with Remarks on its Synonymy." 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, vol. viii, new series, p. 69. 

12. 1897. Dun, W. S. " Occurrence of Lower Silurian Graptolites in New South Wales." Records 

of Geol. Surv. of N.S.W.. vol. v. part iii 

13. 1898. Hall. T. S. " Appendix to the Geology of Coimaidai." Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, vol. x, 

new series, part ii. 

14. 1899. Hall. T. S. "Victorian Graptolites. Part ii." Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, vol. xi. new 

series, part ii. 

KlV TO I'l.ATK \'IIT. 

I. VII figures except 20 are natural size.) 

i I rangle "i -mall graptolites, amongst which possibly two Bpeoiee of Rastritee may be distinguished. 

Figs 2 5. Didymogra'ptvs extensile, dilTerent stages. 

Kga. IS 12, Didytnogra/ptua caduceue, different stages. 

I 13. Tetragraptua quodribrackiattu. 

I _ ; / / agr a ph ia sp. 

Kig. 1"). Lognnogrtiptus octobruchiutue. 

Fin. 16. Probably young individual of Loganograptua odobracMatus. 

Fig. 17. CUmacograptue ep, 

IS. Diplograptue sp. 
I _ lit. PhyllogriijAnx typUB. 
ri;.' 20. PhyOcgraptue ti//>m three hydrotheoa x 2. 

R ethology. 
\> already remarked, the rocks of the western portion of the a.orere Series are comparatively 
unaltered, and consist ol argillites, grauwackes, and sandstone-quartzites ; while those in the central and 
eastern parts are highly metamorphic, and consist of complex crystalline carbonates, Bchists, and cherty 

quartzites. A somewhat arbitrary line, which crosses the A.orere River near the southern boundary 
of the subdivision, marks m general the western limit of the area of extreme metamorphism, though 
no definite demarcation can be made between the unaltered, little altered, and the highly metamorphic 
rocks. The metamorphism of the strata is in part regional, and in part thermal, owing to the intrusion 
of acidic, semi-basic, and basic magmas. In the neighbourhood of the acidic eruptives— granites, 
syenites, &c. — the most common metamorphic phenomenon is silication, while in proximity to the basic 
and semi-basic igneous rocks epidotization is very evident. 

(1.) The Complex Carbonates. — As above mentioned, the complex carbonates occupy in general 
an inferior position among the highly metamorphic strata. They are widely distributed in the Para- 
para subdivision. They occupy the western slopes of the Pikikiruna Range, where they pass north- 
north-eastward from the southern boundary of the subdivision in a band narrowing from about two 
miles at this boundary to nothing three miles farther north. Inconsiderable lenses of carbonate appear 
on Copperstain Creek and at the head-waters of the (Here. The longest and most continuous band 
of complex carbonate in the subdivision crosses the southern boundary where the Anatoki enters 
the Parapara area, and continues northward to the Parapara Iidet, in a belt fluctuating in width from 
one and a half miles to almost zero. Another band of carbonate appears at a point near the south- 
eastern corner of the Aorere Survey District, and runs in a north-north-westerly direction through the 
upper waters of tin- Slate River and its tributary. Whitehorn Creek, reappears in the middle waters 
of the Slate, occurs again in the upper waters of the Parapara and in its tributary, Grueby Creek, after 
which it soon dies out and disappears. The maximum width of the band is about a quarter of a mile. 


Probably the same band again outcrops near the junction of the Happy Valley Stream and the Para- 
para, and continues northward to Appo's Flat. Small lenses of carbonate are to be seen in Wakefield 
Gully and in the head- waters of both branches of the Paturau. 

The complex carbonates differ markedly in chemical composition, as may be seen by a glance 
at the. following analyses of rocks from different parts of the Parapara area : — 

No. 1. '.Siliceous carbonate from Onakaka Stream. 

No. 2.€Weathered carbonate from Tukurua Stream. 

No. 3. 4 Crystalline limestone on road from Parapara Hall to Mr. Bassett's house. 

No. 4. Siliceous carbonate from contact with gneissoid granite at the base of the Pikikiruna 

No. 5. Impure carbonate from extreme north of Washbourn Block. 
No. 6. Cherty rusty carbonate from contact with ultra-basic rocks, Parapara Gorge. 







Silica (Si0 2 ) 

. . 24-08 






Alumina (A1 2 3 ) .. 

. . 3-20 






Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 







Ferrous oxide (FeO) 

. . 0-26 




Manganous oxide (MnO) 

. . 0-25 



. . 


Lime (CaO) 

.. 36-85 






Magnesia (MgO) 

. . 1-85 






Titanium- oxide (Ti0 2 ) 

. . 019 




Carbon-dioxide (C0 2 ) 

.. 3010 






Alkalies and undetermined . . 



Loss on ignition 

. . 0-40 





Water and organic matter . . 



99-45 100-25 100-14 100-00 100-00 100-11 

Most of the carbonates are practically pure or somewhat siliceous crystalline limestones, others contain 
so much magnesia as to approach dolomite, while ferrous carbonate is rarely if ever sufficiently pre- 
dominant to make the carbonate a siderite. 

The complex carbonates also exhibit widely varying textural characteristics, at times being very 
coarsely crystalline, and again compact and fine-grained. The carbonates vary in colour from white 
through grey to black, and are in places bright red, pale green, and brown. Three more or less distinct 
types are observable : — 

(a.) The coarsely crystalline and unhanded carbonate ; 

(b.) The evenly banded and coarsely crystalline carbonate ; 

(c.) The fine-grained and compact carbonate. 

The coarsely crystalline and unhanded carbonates within the subdivision are noncrystalline rocks, 
consisting almost entirely of calcite, with occasional grains of clastic quartz and some secondary 
mica, generally hydrous (Plate XIII). They are old sedimentary rocks, but, being entirely re- 
crystallized, show no evidence of an organic origin.* In many places the coarsely crystalline and unhanded 
carbonates are rocks of great beauty, quite suitable for all the ornamental uses of marble. Coarse- 
grained white marbles appear on the eastern slopes of Kitty Creek, Ellis Creek, and near the Blue Pond 
in Washbourn Block. Grey unhanded marbles of good quality appear on Peter Creek, at Carbonate 
Point near Bassett's house, near the headwaters of the Onakaka, and at many points elsewhere. Deep- 
ilesh- coloured marbles of exquisite beauty outcrop in small quantity on the upper (dry) portion of the 
Waikoroinumu Stream. 

* McKay and Park report the occurrence of fossils, generally fragmentary and indistinct, in crystalline limestone 
at various localities in Nelson outside the Parapara subdivision. (See Geol. Rep. 1879, p. 123; and Geol. Rep. No. 20, 
1890, p. 232.) 


Crystalline Complex Carbonate, showing little or no Alteration. 
Photographed beneath crossed nicols. Magnification, about 20 diameters. Work of Mr. Alexander McKay, F.GS. 

Geo. Bulletin No. 3.] 


The evenly banded and coarsely crystalline carbonates are also holocrystalline rocks, which show 
no evidence of fossils even beneath the microscope. They consist generally of whitish bands of car- 
bonate, with dark-greyish, even black bands, which contain a great deal of argillaceous matter. Often 
quartz and mica, both biotite and muscovite (variety sericite) arc present in great quantity, making a 
transition phase to the mica-carbonate s< ihiats. Chlorite and graphite are also occasionally present. 
The non-micaceous varieties polish well, and would be suitable for ornamental purposes. Banded 
carbonates outcrop at Limestone Point near Bassett's house, on the Slate River, on the Para para 
River, and elsewhere. 

The fine-grained compact carbonate* are much less ornamental in appearance than the other two 
varieties, being generally dull-greyish in colour. Under the microscope no trace of any fossil organism 
is to be seen, and the rock has the usual holocrystalline character. Sometimes veinlets of coarse 
crystalline calcite or dolomite appear in this rock. Fine-grained compact carbonates appear on the 
Parapara River, Kitty Creek, Gibson Creek, and on the Paturau River. 

Some of the carbonates are much brecciated, especially where they occur in contact with the acid 
eruptives near the base of the Pikikiruna Range. In this locality they arc also occasionally much 
silicified (see analysis No. 4, p. 38). Some of the silicified carbonates contain curious segregations 
of siliceous matter, which, owing to their greater resistance to subaerial erosion, stand out in relief 
with the weathering of the limestone, thus giving a curious conglomeratic appearance. Rocks of this 
character appear on Kitty Creek, Peter Creek, and Gibson Creek. .Many of the carbonates are highly 
quartzose. By the removal of the carbonates by dissolution, these rocks pass into impure quartzites. 
Again, the carbonates are often both quartzose and micaceous. By the dissolving-out of the car- 
bonates these rocks pass into normal micaceous quartz schists, the place of the carbonate minerals 
having been taken by secondary silica. Small geodee and lenses of secondary quartz are to be seen 
even when carbonate is present. Frequently the carbonates are highly pyritous. 

The great deposits of iron-ore occurring in the Parapara subdivision are always found in 
connection with the complex carbonates. The connection between the carbonates and the iron-ore 
will be elaborated in the subsequent chapter on the iron-ore. 

(2.) The Cherty Quartzites. — The cherty quartzites occur in many places in the eastern and central 
parts of the subdivision, though they are rarely to be seen in very continuous bands. They appear 
prominently on the hills east of the iron-ore body at Parapara. <>n the western shore of Parapara Inlet, 
on the hills on either side of Appo's Flat. <>u Denton Creek, on Salisbury Creek, and at the Quartz 

As regards texture, the cherty quartzites may be divided into two distinct varieties, which often 
occur in close proximity to each other, and are even interbanded. These two varieties are the coarse- 
grained and granular, and the fine-grained. 

The coarse-grained granular cherty quartzites are very much metamorphosed, thoroughly recrys- 
tallized sandstones, varying in colour from pure white through grey and drab to black ; the crystalline 
texture is more conspicuous than the cherty texture. They consist mainly of quartz, with small 
amounts of micaceous minerals, biotite. sericite. chlorite, and iron-oxides both magnetite and limonite. 
The rock is often well banded. Typical examples of the coarsely crystalline cherty quartzites appear 
in Denton Creek, Salisbury (.'reck. Grueby Creek, and elsewhere. 

The fine-grained cherty quartzites show the Name range <>\ colours as the coarse-grained granular 
quartzites. They are often almost amorphous in texture, and have the usual opalescent appearance 
characteristic of chert. Beneath the microscopi they are Been to consist mainly of a mosaic of quartz 
in which are embedded flakes of sericite, chlorite, and rarely biotite. crystals of zircon, pyrite, and 
magnetite. Very often the fine-grained cherty quartzite is evenly banded into light and dark coloured 
layers. Occasionally it i> brecciated, and sometimes the autoclastic rock thus formed is recemented 
by pyrite. Fine-grained cherty quartzite occurs typically on Tukurua Stream, on the shores of 
Parapara Inlet, on Boulder River, and elsewhere. Highly pyritized brecciated cherty quartzite 
is to be seen in the tunnel by which the tailings from the Appo's Flat sluicing claim are carried into 
Appo's Creek. The following analyses of the cherts are instructive : — 

95 05 




















. . 























No. 1. Banded opalescent cherty quartzite, Tukurua Stream. 

No. 2. Rusty cherty quartzite. Tukurua Stream. 

No. 3. Dark-grey chert from road round Parapara Inlet, Washbourn Block. 

No. 4. Cherty quartzite from Onakaka Stream, above Ironstone Creek. 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 
Ferrous oxide (FcO) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Titanium-oxide (Ti0 2 ) 
Carbon-dioxide (C0 2 ) 
Sulphuric anhydride (S0 2 ) 
Loss on ignition 

100-41 99-53 99-88 100-42 

The fine-grained cherty quartzite on weathering often assumes a very fine saccharoidal texture, 
and when bleached of iron becomes pure white. A cherty quartzite of this character is to be seen on 
the hill just south of Blue Pond. 

A peculiar quartzite was found in the head- waters of the Paturau. This specimen is an almost 
black rock, coloured by some fine micaceous mineral, and containing large rounded grains of clear 
glassy quartz embedded in the coarse crystalline matrix. It is evidently a metamorphosed grit. 

Secondary quartzites, which are apparently derived from a quartzose or cherty carbonate, have 
already been mentioned. Under the microscope their secondary origin is apparent, and is shown by 
spaces between areas of clastic quartz entirely, or almost entirely, filled with secondary quartz, and 
occasionally sericite. Rocks of this character usually occur in connection with the unaltered carbonates, 
as on the Ngarino Ridge and on the Onakaka Ridge. Often these secondary quartzites are rusty 
friable rocks, which are merely the quartzose carbonates deprived of the carbonate-cementing matrix, 
and coloured by iron-oxide derived from ferrous carbonate or pyrite. In places these secondary 
quartzites are highly micaceous, and have evidently originated irom micaceous quartzose carbonates. 
These mark a transition phase to the true mica schists. 

A curious mica quartzite outcrops on one of the tributaries of Maori Gully entering Wasbbourn 
Creek. It is a beautiful nile-green rock, composed mainly of medium-grained quartzite layers, sepa- 
rated by thin partings of a beautiful green chrome mica, which is probably fuchsite, and which gi\es 
thr rock its colour. Specimens of this chrome micaceous quartzite are to be found in the newer debris 
on the shore of the Parapara Inlet. An analysis of the rock gave the following result . — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89-05 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) .. .. .. .. .. . . . . 6-49 

Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) . . . . . . . . . 0-52 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-43 

Lime (CaO) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-38 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Titanium-oxide (Ti0 2 ) 

Carbon-dioxide (C0 2 ) 

Chromic oxide (Cr 2 3 ) 

Potash (K 2 0) 

Soda (Na 2 0) 

Water and loss on ignition 




Transition rocks between the true phyllites and quartzites are those which show fine layers 
of phyllite and quartzite interbanded. 

(3.) The Schists. — The schists present a great petrographical variety, more especially in the meta- 
niorphic area in the immediate vicinity of the eruptive rocks. They may be divided into the following 
groups, which depend upon the prevailing minerals present : — 

(a.) Biotite schists. (d.) Chlorite schists. 

(b.) Muscovite schists. (<?.) Mica-carbonate schists. 

(c.) Graphite schists. (/.) Amphibolites. 

(a.) Biotite Schists: The biotite schists are greyish rocks, coarse- to fine-grained in texture, 
decidedly fissile, and sometimes crenulated, and easily weathered. The biotite schists consist mainly 
of quartz and biotite. They are often highly garnetiferous. and occasionally zoisitic. The zoisite is 
seldom to be observed inacroscopieallv. but beneath the microscope may be noticed with Bericite. 
With an increase in the quantity of quartz, always present to a greater or leaser degree, the l>iotite 
schists pass into mica quartzites. The fine-grained biotite schists are often practically identical with 
the schistose grauwackes. In weathering the biotite schists are generally very rusty, owing partly 
to the oxidation of the pvrite nearly always present, and to the decomposition of the biotite. 
Often the biotite schists are much chloritized. 

The biotite sehists occur in many places in the -ubdivision, but especially along the eastern slopes 
of the Onakaka and Walker Ridge, and in the neighbourhood of the granitic intrusives. Typical 
coarse-grained biotite schists appear in Contact Creek-. Onahau Creek, and Onakaka Stream. Coarse- 
grained garnetiferous biotite schists outcrop on the Tukurua Stream, on the lower Parapara, on the 
Onakaka, and in Basin Creek. 

The tine-grained biotite schists are ordinarily much more quartzose than the coarse-grained biotite 
schists. They occur in Bassett Cully, where they m croscopically very much resemble fine-grained 
gneisses, in One-spec Creek, Ellis Creek. Onahau ('reek, Copperstain Creek. Tukurua Stream, at the head 
of Limonite Creek, in Contact Creek, and at many other points. They are often garnetiferous, as are 
the coarse-grained biotite schists. 

ial peculiar varieties of biotite Bchists may be described. On the Parapara occurs a fine-grained, 
hard, dark rock, consisting of fine-grained quartzose layers and other layers shimmering with tiny spangles 
of biotite, ami containing dodecahedra of garnet. Many ol the layers of this rock closely resemble 
hornfeis. A curious schist i> one which exhibits a fine-graiued quartzose matrix of greyish or pinkish 
colour, in which are embedded irregular overlapping lenses of biotite with Bericite ami rarel) garnet. 
Rocks of this character occur in the Lower 1'arapara. in Skilton Creek, and in Campbell Creek. 
Another remarkable biotite Bchisl is one occurring in Lightband Creek, am! elsewhere in that 
vicinity. It shows an exceedingly fine-grained, hard, micaceous ground-mass, in which are embedded 
numerous relativelx large individual crystals of biotite and pyrite. 

The biotite M-hists occurring in immediate contact with the acid eruptives, as in Basin Creek and 
at Boulder Lake, are often much silicified. Ahdalusite- biotite schists occur on Boulder River, iu 
Eliot Creek, in Finney Creek, in Basin Creek, ami m Salisbury Creek always in close contiguity 
with the acid igneous rocks. Like the silicified biotite schists, the andalusite-biotite schists are a 
product of special igneous metamorphism. Macroscopically the andalusite-biotite schists exhibit 
fine-grained micaceous rocks, with andalusite in elongated, rounded, and often radiating forms, some 
times an inch in length, and often so much decomposed as to be difficult to identify as andalusite. 
Beneath the microscope the rock is seen to consist mainly of a matrix of quartz, muscovite, biotite, 
chlorite, and magnetite, in which are embedded the relatively large and rare crystals of andalusite, 
generally much biotitised. 

A chiastolite schist, probably a phase of the andalusite-biotite x hist, has been reported by Mr. 
E. D. Isaacson, from the head of the Anatori River. 

The biotite schists are undoubtedly sedimentary rocks, though their original characters have been 
almost completely altered by the extreme metamorphism which they have undergone. 

(o.) Muscovite Schists : The muscovite and Bericite schists are light-greyish rocks, with a silver} 
sheen along the planes of foliation. They consist mainly of quartz and muscovite or sericite In 


general, the inuscovite schists are entirely recrystallized rocks ; but occasionally they show both 
clastic quartz and much-altered feldspar (probably both orthoclase and plagioclase). Garnet, biotite, 
zoisite, and chlorite are minerals present in various phases of the muscovite schists. Some of the 
muscovite schists, with an increase in the quantity of biotite pass into biotite schist. Pyrite, present 
in greater or less quantity in nearly all of the sericite and muscovite schists, by its decomposition, fre-- 
quently gives the rock a rusty outcrop. The rnuscovite schists are evidently derived from a sedimentary 
rock rich in feldspar. Fine-grained muscovite schists occur in Hope Creek, in One-spec Creek, and 
elsewhere. Sericite schists of fine grain, and of distinctly feldspathic appearance, occur in Coppermine 
Creek and in the Parapara Gorge. 

Some of the sericite schists, which are phyllitic in appearance, contain in addition to sericite 
a chrome mica, which imparts to the rocks a faint-greenish colour. In places this chrome-mica - 
sericite schist has layers weathering brown from the oxidation of contained pyrite (or iron-carbonate). 
The brownish and greenish layers are often in marked contrast. Rocks of this nature, which are ordi- 
narily highly siliceous, occur in Tukurua Stream, on the Hidden Treasure track near the iron-ore, and 
elsewhere. The sericite schists which overlie Johnston's United Reef, and which appear in contact 
with the underlying graphitic phyllite both to the north and south of the reef, are very highly 
mineralised, generally with pyrite, and contain many radiating crystals of amphibole. 

A peculiar much crenulated sericite schist, which occurs in Mackenzie Creek, contains, in addition to 
the usual quartz and sericite. a large amount of dolomite, with a less amount of zoisite and pyrite. The 
dolomite occurs in rhombohedral forms, with much-eroded outlines. A highly quartzose sericite schist 
obtained from the western slopes of Xgarino Ridge, near the iron-ore occurring in that locality, contained 
so much epidote and zoisite as to deserve the designation, epidote-zoisite-quartz-sericite schist. 

(c.) Graphite Schists : The graphite schists which apparently represent a phase of nietamoiphism 
of the carbonaceous argillites. more extreme than that of the graphitic phyllites, later to be described, 
are highly crenulated blue-black rocks (Plate XVI). They consist almost entirely of very fine quartz 
and graphite, with small amounts of micaceous minerals, and of pyrite. Graphite schists outcrop near 
the mouth of the Boulder River, on the track to the Quartz Ranges, on the Anatoki River, and in 
Washbourn Block, where they occur in immediate proximity to the iron-ore. 

(d.) Chlorite Schists : The chlorite schists are greenish or greyish rocks, probably formed at least 
in part by the alteration of biotite schists. They consist mainly of quartz and chlorite, with less 
amounts of other minerals. They occur in WardT Creek, in the headwaters of Campbell Creek, 
and elsewhere. A remarkable phase of the ordinary 'chlorite schist was discovered in Rocky Creek. 
This rock, which is lensoidly and crenately banded, consists of layers of much-corrugated chlorite inter- 
calated with layers of quartz, sericite, carbonate (calcite ?), and zoisite (Plate XIV). 

(e.) Mica-carbonate Schists : The mica-carbonate schists are merely a phase of the micaceous 
carbonates from which they differ mainly in the greater proportion of mica present and in the wel - 
marked, schistose structure. They consist chiefly of carbonate (generally calcite), biotite, sericite (or 
muscovite), and quartz. Pyrite, zoisite or epidote, and chlorite are accessories. The mica -carbonate 
schists are of wide distribution in connection with the carbonate rocks proper. More particularly they 
appear on the slopes of the Xgarino Range and on the Parapara River. 

A mica-zoisite-carbonate-quartz-schist appearing on Slate River contains carbonate in lenses 
apparently derived from the alteration of a basic feldspathic mineral. 

(/.) Amphibolites : The amphibolites are dark-green or dark-grey rocks of coarse to fine grain. 
Some are certainly of sedimentary origin, others seem much less probably so, while still others bear a 
very striking megascopic and microscopic resemblance to squeezed diorites or gabbros. Only those 
which are certainly of sedimentary origin are classified with the Aorere series. 

The amphibolites generallv show, even when examined microscopically, that amphibole and quartz 
are their prevailing mineral constituents. Beneath the microscope the amphibole is identifiable as 
hornblende, and with it are associated biotite, chlorite in greater or less quantity in various specimens, 
sericite, plagioclase, calcite, garnet, zoisite, epidote, chalcedony, magnetite, and pyrite. Sometimes the 
amphibolite is a holocrystalline rock of coarse even grain, again it shows a fine-grained matrix, in which 
are embedded the large hornblendes, and occasional biotites. In some amphibolites biotite is as pro- 
minent as hornblende, and then the rock becomes a biotite amphibolite, which marks a transition to a 


The 1. uses arc of chlorite. Magnification, about 20 diameters. Work of Mr. Alexander .McKay, F.G.S. 

It'eo. Dalit tin No. J.] 



Photographed in ordinary light. Magnification, about 20 diameters. Work of Mr. Alexander McKay, F.G.S. 

Geo. Bulletin No. S ] 


hornblende mica schist. On weathering the amphibolite becomes soft and argillaceous, owing to the 
chloritization of the ferro-magnesian minerals, the oxidation of the pyrite, and the development of 
carbonate. The amphibolites are occasionally the result of nietaniorphism induced by contact with 
the basic igneous rocks, from which, as already remarked, they are sometimes distinguishable only with 
great difficulty. Again they appear in close contact with the acid igneous rocks. In places their ex- 
tremely changed petrological condition seems to be the result of purely dynamic alteration. The 
transition from but little altered arkositic grauwackes to amphibolite-. is sometimes apparent. 

Coarse-grained amphibolites appear on the Slate River near its mouth (Plate XV), in Campbell 
Creek, near the mouth of Contact Cieek, in Doctor Creek, and in the lower Parapara River, Fine- 
grained amphibolites outcrop in Lightband Creek, and elsewhere, whilst coarse-grained mica 
amphibolites appear in Ironstone Creek and on the Pariwhakaoho. Garnetiferous mica amphi- 
bolite, highly feldspathic and pyritous, and gneissoid in appearance, outcrops in the upper 
waters of Lightband Gully. Much chloritized amphibolites appear in Peter Creek, near the Bubu 
sluicing claim, on the edge of the Waitapu mudflat, and at many other points. Fine-grained mica 
amphibolites appear in the head of Kitty Creek iu close proximity to the acid igneous rocks, in Page 
Creek, and in other localities. Amphibolites very rich in carbonate are to be seen on the Slate River, 
about a mile above its mouth. 

A rather remarkable amphibolite occurs in Lightband Gully, about a mile and a half from its 
mouth. This is a rock with a light-coloured, highly feldspathic and quartzose matrix, in which 
are embedded large and sometimes radiating crystals of hornblende with isomorphic outlines. This 
rock weathers with very rusty outcrop, owing to the large amount of pyrite present. 

(4.) Phyllites. — The phyllites are widely distributed throughout the subdivision, but more especially 
in the central part, where they occur interstratitied with the more highly metamorphic strata, and mark 
the transition rock between these and the less metamorphic Btrata in the western portion. The typical 
phyllite, a fine-grained rock, consisting mainly of microscopic mica, chlorite, and quartz, and showing 
the characteristic silky sheen along the piano of ^ratification, varies in colour from light grey to 
almost black. Very often the rock is rusty along the foli;c, owing to the oxidation of pyrite. Light- 
grey phyllites are to be seen to advantage at the Quartz Ranges, in Salisbury Creek, in Silver Stream. 
in Finney Creek, and in Boulder River. 

Contorted Phyllite, Bollder River, unconformably overlain by Modern Gravels. 


The dark-colourecfphyllites generally contain graphite, and some of them are quite black with this 
mineral. A specimen from Silver Stream contained 4 - 63 per cent, of carbonaceous matter. Graphitic 
phyllites are apparent in Wakefield Gully, in Fossil Creek, at the headwaters of the Paturau River, 
and elsewhere. Often they include a great deal of pyrite, which sometimes develops into beautiful 
idiomorphic crystals along the cleavage-planes. 

Some of the phyllites exhibit along the planes of foliation numerous tiny spots, which may be 
andalusite. These spotted phyllites may be either graphitic or non-graphitic. They are conspicuously 
exposed on the Paturau River, in Seventeen-mile Creek, and elsewhere. 

Highly arenaceous phyllites occur in places, and are transition rocks to schistose grauwackes. 
Sometimes the phyllites show a highly crenulated structure, and tend to pass into fine-grained mica 
(and chlorite) schists. Rocks of this character occur in Fifteen-mile Creek, and in Salisbury Creek. 

(5.) Argillites, Grauwackes, and Sandstone quartzites.-- As already remarked, the argillites and 
giauwackes represent the least metamorphic of the Aorere rocks, though even they show in some 
measure the influence of regional metamorphism. Most of the country occupied by the Aorere rocks 
in the extreme west of the subdivision is composed of argillites, grauwackes, and sandstone-quartzites, 
and similar rocks also occur in other parts of the subdivision to the eastward. 

The Aorere argillites are fine-grained rocks, generally evenly banded, and sometimes with the 
banding made apparent by differently coloured layers. In places the rocks are almost massive. Some- 
times both cleavage and bedding planes are apparent, and these two structural features are not always 
in conformity. True slates — that is, argillaceous rocks splitting easily and evenly along cleavage- 
planes — are rarely seen in the Parapara subdivision ; while shaly argillites are almost absent. The 
argillites vary in colour from almost white to black, the latter being due to carbonaceous matter. Light- 
grey and drab argillites appear in the Paturau River, in Bonny Doon Creek, and in Two-leap Creek. 
Light -greenish argillites are visible on Mount Stephens, in the Paturau River, and elsewhere. 
Carbonaceous argillites are to be seen in Slaty Creek, in Fifteen-mile Creek, and in many other 
places. Many of the argillites are highly pyritous, especially those which are also carbonaceous. In 
every part of the subdivision are to be seen argillites showing the incipient stage of advanced meta- 
morphism, as evidenced by the presence of mica plates in greater or lesser quantity. Such rocks are 
especially to be observed on the upper Parapara River, in the upper part of Handcock Creek, in the 
upper part of Wilson Creek, and in Dorothy Creek. The argillites are in places highly siliceous, 
when they mark a transition phase to the argillaceous cherty quartzites. 

The grauwackes differ from the argillites in being much coarser-grained and much more arenaceous. 
The true grauwackes are seldom very evenly banded, but are generally massive in appearance. In 
many places thin beds of grauwacke occur intercalated with thin beds of argillite. Very often the 
grauwackes lose their argillaceous nature and pass into sandstone-quartzites. In places the grauwackes, 
ordinarily composed chiefly of quartz, chlorite, and mica, contain a great deal of feldspar and are hence 
arkositic grauwackes. The grauwackes, as already remarked, are limited chiefly to the western part 
of the subdivision, but in addition occur elsewhere as many minor bands. Very often the development 
of metamorphic mica showing the transition to a mica schist is apparent, as in Ironstone Creek and 
in Mackenzie Creek. Arkositic grauwackes appear in Eliot Creek, Break-me-up Creek, and elsewheif. 

The sandstone quartzites occurring with the grauwackes and argillites are very much less crystalline 
than are the highly metamorphic quartzites appearing with the crystalline schists. They are light-greyish 
rocks, consisting almost entirely of quartz, both secondary and original. They occur interstratified both 
with the argillites and with the grauwackes, especially in the neighbourhood of the Golden Ridge. 

(6.) Friction Breccias. — In several parts of the subdivision, more especially on the Paturau 
River, in Silver Stream, and on the Little Boulder River, breccias occur. These are always almost 
identical in character, and show a fine argillaceous matrix, in which are embedded small irregular 
fragments of chert, jasper, and quartz. At first it was thought that they were fine-grained con- 
glomerates, but very careful investigation has proven them to be autoclastic rocks. Evidently the rock 
originally consisted of interstratified layers of argillaceous material and of cherty or quartzose 
material. On intense crumpling the siliceous layers were brecciated, while the soft argillaceous layers 
were moulded around the resulting fragments. The bands of friction breccias are everywhere narrow. 
The breccias on the Paturau and Silver Stream are generally greyish green in colour, while those on 
the Little Boulder are very light grey in colour. 


Crenulated Graphite Schist.— Washbourn Block. (Full size.) 


Specimen showing Bedding-planes and Cleavages.— Bert Creek. (Full size.) 




I'aKc. I'ape. 

Age and Correlation .. .. .. '•" Petrology .. .. 46 

Distribution and Structure .. .. .. 45 | Special Area .. .. .. ..47 

Age and Correlation. 

The Haupiri Series consists mainly of altered grauwackes, argillites. and conglomerates, which have 
evidently been laid down in shallow water. Like the Aorere this series has been subjected to intense 
metamorphism, and involved in extensive earth-movements. 

The volcanic breccias which occur in connection with the series in the Slate River district, and 
elsewhere, are described in Chapter ix. under the heading of " Epidote Rocks." 

The age of the Haupiri Series is Bomewhal doubtful, but owing to the presence in the basement 
conglomerate of numerous pebbles, derived from the met amorphic pari of the Aorere Series, it is clear 
that an unconformity separatee the Haupiri from these members of the Aorere. Tt is just possible, 
however, that deposition of the Haupiri beds in the south-eastern part of the Aorere Survey District 
may have gone on contemporaneously with the laying-down of the finer-grained fossiliferous beds in 
the western part, which are of proved Ordovician age. 

Park* correlates the rocks under consideration with the Te Anau Series, generally considered to be 
of Devonian age. 

It will be seen from the table opposite p. "JO that Cox, who made the first general survey of the district, 
and McKay have also classed the Haupiri Series as Devonian : whilst Hutton considered it to be of 
Permo-Carboniferous age. In the comparatively small areas of Haupiri rocks as yet examined by the 
writers, the evidence obtainable did not warrant the assigning of any definite age to these rocks. All 
that can be said from the data available is that they arc younger than the highly metamorphic portion 
of the Aorere Series. 

Distribution and Structure. 

Distribution. — The main exposures of the Haupiri Series are along the southern boundary of the 
subdivision, mainly in the Aorere Survey District. Here the series is disposed in a number of narrow 
bands, generally trending north-north-east and BOUth-aouth-west. The most easterly band runs along 
the western slopes of the Walker Ridge. It extends a little beyond Parapara Peak, and has a length 
of about four and a half miles, with a maximum width of half a mile. The next band crosses Walker 
Ridge west of the Devil's Dip, and runs about four miles in a north -north-west direction, dying out 
tn the valley of the Slate River below Kill-devil Creek. It has a maximum width of half a mile, with 
an average width of a quarter of a mile. Lower down the Slate a continuation of this band appears, 
following the river-valley for over four miles. 

Other belts of smaller size are found in the head-waters of Snows and Rocky Rivers, in Bonnv 
Doon Creek, in Lightband Gully, and in Stanton Creek. These small areas of Haupiri rocks are com- 
paratively of little importance. 

Structure. — The rocks belonging to the Haupiri Series are extremely variable in strike and dip. 
As in the Aorere Series, the strike is generally somewhat east or west of north, but is occasonially almost 
east and west. The dip. which is more often to the west than to the east, varies from 35° or less 
to 80°. 

* See Geol^Rep. No. 20, 1890, p. 229. 


The Haupiri Scries has been involved in the same orogenic movements, and shares the same complex 
structure as the Aorere Series described in Chapter v, but owing to the effects of denudation it is now 
found occupying only the bottoms of synclines, in the form of long narrow belts. These, as previously 
mentioned, narrow towards the north, and finally die out. This latter feature indicates that the anti- 
clinal and synclinal axes of the folds generally pitch towards the south, but the complexity of the 
folding renders it difficult to form a definite idea of the real structure. Other complications have been 
introduced by dykes and flows of igneous rocks. 

The intense dynamic agencies which gave rise to the folding have also induced a very general 
schistose structure. The conglomerates are often much sheared, and in places friction breccias have 
resulted from fault movements. The cleavage is well shown in the argillites. The schistose structure 
and cleavage generally conform to the bedding-planes, but not always. Unconformity between the 
Haupiri Series and the Aorere Series is well shown in many places — not by any apparent difference in 
the inclination of the beds — but in the presence of conglomerates at the base of the Haupiri, containing 
abundant pebbles from the Aorere rocks. The basement conglomerate is well seen at many places, 
but especially on the Brown Cow Ridge, on Walker Ridge, and in the Slate River. 


The Haupiri rocks, like those of the Aorere Series, have been much affected by thermal and 
dynamic metamorphism. which have led not only to the formation of new minerals, but in many cases 
to pronounced changes in the structure and chemical composition. The thermal metamorphism was 
due to contemporaneous volcanic and solfataric activity ; but alteration has, in the main, been caused 
by dynamic metamorphism of later date, originating in connection with the orogenic movements pre- 
viously mentioned. In consequence, a large number of secondary minerals has been produced, of which 
the most important are serpentine, chlorite, quartz, calcite, epidote, zoisite, sericite, pyrite, tourmaline, 
garnet, and magnetite. As already remarked, the Haupiri rocks consist of conglomerates, argillites, 
and grauwackes, the argillites, perhaps, predominating. 

(1.) The Conglomerates. — These, the basement rocks of the series, vary in texture from fine to 
coarse. There is a decided tendency for the conglomerates to become finer towards the west in the 
Bonny Doon, and there is a faint possibility that they pass into grauwackes or argillites classed 
with the Aorere Series. 

The pebbles of the conglomerate consist chiefly of quartz and quartzite, partly also of quartz 
schist, mica schist, and schistose argillite and grauwacke, and, to a very small degree, of acid and 
basic igneous rocks. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of cobbles with a maximum 
diameter of 6 in. Sometimes they are rounded or merely flattened ; again they may be so intensely 
sheared that they are rolled out into ribbons 6 in. or even a foot in length, but only a fraction of 
an inch in thickness. The conglomerates often exhibit a marked divergence between the bedding- 
planes and the cleavage due to compression, which cuts across the pebbles and the bedding-planes. 
These two sets of planes occasionally intersect each other at a wide angle. 

A curious pebble noticed to occur in the conglomerate on Walker Ridge is of cherty quartzite, 
containing numerous crystals of magnetite. The pebbles of the acid igneous rock occurring as one of 
the minor constituents of the conglomerate do not resemble those of the acid igneous complex — a point 
which will be elaborated on a later page in the chapter dealing with these rocks. 

The quartzite pebbles when examined microscopically are found to consist of a mosaic of closely 
interlocked quartz-veins with a few impurities. The argillite, grauwacke, and crystalline carbonate 
are usually so highly metamorphosed that it is difficult to recognise them as pebbles in microscopic 

The matrix of the conglomerate is generally quartzose, but is sometimes feldspathic. In addition 
to quartz and feldspar (both orthoclase and plagioclase), the matrix contains original biotite, magnetite, 
and pyrite, together with secondary sericite. chlorite, epidote, zoisite, serpentine, chalcedony, calcite, 
and pyrite. Some of the quartz grains are well rounded, and the chlorites frequently resemble worn 
fragments of altered biotite. On the other hand, the feldspar fragments, more especially the plagio- 


clases, when the original form is preserved, show no rounding, and are similar to the fragments seen in 
the undoubted tuffs. There is 'therefore evidence of volcanic activity contemporaneous with the 
deposition of the conglomerates. 

Many of the conglomerates arc highly pyritous, some being so much so that on oxidation they 
present an extremely rusty surface. The finer-grained conglomerates, especially those in which quartz 
pebbles prevail, have in places the appearance of a breccia. Quartz stringers are frequently developed 
in the conglomerates, and generally intersect the bedding-planes, even crossing individual pebbles. 

In places the conglomerates become so fine-grained that they pass into grits, arkoses. 01 grau- 

Conglomerates outcrop on the Brown Cow Ridge, in Rocky River, in Snows River and its many 
tributaries entering on the western side, in the upper and lower Slate River, in Lightband Gully and 
Stanton Creek, along the Walker Ridge, on Parapara Peak, and in other localities.' They are highly 
pvritous on the Slate River near the mouth of Kill-devil Creek, in Specimen Creek, in Bray Creek, 
and in Soper Creek. 

(2.) The ArgiUites ami Grauwackes. — The argillites and grauwackea occur interbanded with the 
beds of conglomerate. Sometimes the bands of conglomerate, grauwacke. and of argillite are all 
narrow, and occur within a short distance distinctly demarcated from each other. 

The grauwackes are generally greyish or greenish in colour, and when originally pyritous are some- 
times of rusty outcrop. 

The argillites are blackish, purplish, reddish, greyish, and greenish in colour. They exhibit the 
parallel structure characteristic of rocks of fine grain which have been subjected to great pressure. 
Greenish argillites are especially common, owing their peculiar colour to the mineral epidote so 
frequently present. The argillites and grauwackes differ only in the diversity of their grain. When 
examined microscopically they an- found to consist of small grains of quartz and feldspar, and flakes 
of mica, together with an abundance of secondarily developed minerals, the chief of which are epidote, 
zoisite. sericite. chlorite, and pyrite. 

Of interest is the occurrence of tourmaline in a highly eoisitized and sericitized rock, which will 
be again mentioned in connection with the basic and semi-basic igneous rocks (page 70). of which it 
is a metamorphic product. 

Another interesting argillite is found just overlying the lowest bed of conglomerate near Parapara 
Peak, and also at the head-water.- of Wilson Creek, and of the Parapara River. Tt is a black pvritic 
argillite of such exceedingly fine grain that little can lie made of it with the highest powers of the micro- 
scope. Embedded in this fine-grained matrix are perfect rhombic dodecahedra of red garnet. This 
rock is seen at Parapara Peak to pass up into a microscopically Bchistose argillite, containing crystals 
of epidote, round which the lines of schist osity flow, in addition to quartz, chlorite, sericite, and pyrite. 
This rock is also found in Slate River some 60 chains below the mouth of Serpentine Creek. 

Some banded argillites on the Slate River show " cross-fissility " in the alternate bands, thus 
illustrating the effect of dynamic metamorphism on layers of slightlv differing composition. 

Special Area. 

Attention has recently been called to the beds of conglomerate occurring in Brav Creek, and in 
its tributary. Soper Creek. The conglomerate is interstratified with beds of grauwacke and of argillite. 
Both the conglomerate and the grauwacke are highly pyritous, are gashed by small stringers of (|uartz, 
and contain seams of pug. The conglomerate, which is always of fine grain and quartzose, bears in 
places a striking megascopic resemblance to the pvritous quartz conglomerate of the Rand. On account 
of this resemblance, and also because of the fact that both Bray and Soper Creeks formerly carried a 
good deal of alluvial gold, supposed not to continue above the outcrops of conglomerate, considerable 
prospecting was carried out, which was said to have met with success in the discovery of gold in the 
matrix of the conglomerate, in the quartz stringers ramifying through it, and in the pug seams/ Very 
detailed observations were made by the writers of this Bulletin in both Bray and Soper Creeks. In Bray 
Creek the auriferous country is said to be limited to beds of conglomerate and grauwacke situated 


three-quarters of a mile above the mouth of the stream. Where the supposed auriferous belt crosses 
the stream it has a width of about 50 ft. Small quartz stringers and pug seams, containing large rounded 
nodules of pyrite ramify through it in various directions. 

On Soper Creek the conglomerates and grauwackes are similar to those of Bray Creek, and are 
intersected by pug seams and quartz stringers. On the southern bank of Soper Creek a tunnel has been 
driven to cut the conglomerate beds. A very careful sampling was made by the officers of the present 
survey of the conglomerates and of the material from the pug seams and quartz stringers in Bray Creek 
and in the tunnel in Soper Creek, but the assays proved very disappointing, yielding merely traces of 
gold and silver. A second and more extensive sampling was then made with no better results. On the 
other hand, samples obtained by Mr. Storie- — a mining engineer from Auckland who reported on the 
area — and assayed in the Colonial Laboratory, yielded from a trace up to 13 oz. 14 dwt. 7 gr. of gold 
per ton, and from a trace up to 1 oz. 5 dwt. 5 gr. of silver per ton. A table showing the exact results of 
assays made from samples collected by Geological Survey officers, together with the locality from which 
each was obtained, may be of interest : — 



Assay Results. 

per Ton. 

per Ton. 

Tunnel in Soper ( 'reek 

Bray Creek 

Quartz stringers from inner portion of tunnel in conglomerate 

Quartz stringers in grauwacke 

Outer seam of conglomerate cut in tunnel 

Pug seam 

Inner seam of conglomerate cut in tunnel 

Conglomerate band 

Pug seam 

Fine breccia-like conglomerate band 

Decomposed grauwacke • . . 


Grauwacke band 

Small quartz stringers 













I o-, 




7 „ 

Apparently the pyritous conglomerates and grauwackes occasionally contain traces of gold and silver, 
but never in payable quantity. What value there is, is probably limited to pyrite, since the rounded 
pyrite nodules occurring in the pug seams are .both argentiferous and auriferous. An assay of one of 
these nodules yielded 2 dwt. 12 gr. of gold and 2 dwt. 12 gr. of silver. A similar specimen from the 
same locality is said to have assayed £13 to the ton. 

The quartz stringers certainly at times contain fine colours of visible gold, but they are much too 
small to be of any economic importance. An assay of a sample, picked free from visible gold, from a 
quartz seam on Bray Creek at a point where several small stringers intersect gave a result of 2oz. 
2 dwt. 5 gr. of gold and 3 dwt. 22 gr. of silver. The sample was not collected by an officer of the Geo- 
logical Survey, but by a prospector in whose good faith the writers had every confidence. 


Waitapd Wii LR] . 

Geo. Bulletin. No. ■!.] 

Miocene Strata, near Rockville 




Introduction . . . . . . 49 

General Distribution .. .. .. 49 

(ieneral Strn. titi-p .. .. .. ..50 

Page. l'age. 

Palieontology . . . . . . 51 

Petrology and Description of Special Areas .. .">2 

Special Features of Economic Importance .. 0(> 


The Oamaru Series consists of three distinct formations which may be tabulated as follows : — 
i (a.) Quartzose conglomerate. 

I (b.) Conglomerates, shales with coal-seams, and sandstone. 
(2.) Limestone. Sometimes arenaceous or argillaceous. 
(3.) Blue and yellow clays. 
The complete sequence of these formations is not represented in every section, very frequently 
one or even two of the members being either originally lacking or removed by denudation subsequent 
to their deposition. Thus in places the clays come directly verothe lowest measures and in others 
the latter are almost or altogether wanting, the limestone appearing directly above Palaeozoic rocks. 

In many parts of the subdivision the basal quartzose conglomerates accompanied by sandstones 
are succeeded directly by limestones; elsewhere the limestones directly overlie a scries of grits, sand- 
stones, shales with coal-seama, and conglomerates, w hich in turn overlie the Paleozoic strata. Since the 
limestones are apparently all of the same age it is presumed that the two members of the lowest forma- 
tion of the series, separated as (o) and (f>) above, are approximately contemporaneous in age. and that 
the differences in their lithological character are due to varied conditions of deposition in the several 
parts of the subdivision. 

The Palseontological data which have led the writers to assign the series to Oamaru (Miocene) age 
will be given in extenso later, as well as details relating to the unconformity between the Oamaru rocks 
and the underlying Palaeozoic strata. 

General Dim bibi dioh. 

The rocks of the Oamaru Series are now. owing to long-continued denudation, confined almost 
entirely to the comparatively low-lying areas bordering the coast-line on the east and stretching up the 
broad valleys of the Aorere and Takaka. I>ur there i- evidence that they were originallv of far wider 
distribution, remnants being found at higher altitudes, notably on the large faulted and slightly tilted 
area forming the gentle smith-eastern slopes of the Aorere Valley. Here they sometimes occur as 
isolated buttee, generally of but small extent, and. when limestone is present, readily distinguishable 
at a distance from the brown pakiki of the sloping plain by the luxuriant forest vegetation with which 
they are clad (Plates XVII and XVIII). Again in the extreme north-west of the district small patches 
are to be found at a considerable elevation above sea-level. 

Along the coast-line between the two large river valleys rocks of the Oamaru Series are exposed 
almost continuously, having their greatest inland extension of three miles directly west from Rangi- 
haieta Head and narrowing towards the north to a minimum width of about three-quarters of a mile 
at the south side of Parapara Inlet. East of the Takaka River, with the exception of a prominent 
inlier of Paheozoic rocks at the mouth of the river. Tertiary rocks fringe the coast-line to the extreme 
eastern boundary of the subdivision, being last seen at the Tata Islands, where they have their mini- 
mum width. From the coast-line they extend in a gradually narrowing area, bordered on the south- 
east by the base of the Pikikimna Range, up the valley of the Takaka River. Neat the southern 
boundary of the subdivision they have a width of about four miles. In the Aorere Vallev the rocks of 
4 -Karamea. 


this series follow up the valley in a narrowing belt, their most south-westerly extension being near the 
confluence of the Aorere with its branch — Brown River. At Rockville the width of the Oamaru 
rocks is three and a quarter miles. 

General Structure. 

Unlike the rocks of the Aorere and Haupiri Series, those of the Oamaru, within the Parapara sub- 
division, are not contorted, and are on the whole inclined but slightly from the horizontal, though 
subject to minor and sometimes pronounced irregularities in certain localities. They occur in three 
distinct blocks separated from one another by two great faults which strike north-east and south-west 
with relative downthrow to the south-east, thus leaving the most westerly area of Oamaru rocks at a 
height of 1,000 ft. or more above sea-level and bringing the most easterly block down to sea-level. 

In the Takaka Valley the Oamaru rocks are bordered on the north-west by the more easterly of 
the above-mentioned faults, and on the south-east by a third fault along the base of the Pikikiruna 
Range. This fault is evidenced by the pronounced physiographic effect produced on the country. 
A ridge of ancient Aorere rocks rises abruptly on the south-eastern side of the fault-hue, while on the 
north-western side lies the flat valley of the Takaka. Moreover, there is structural evidence of the 
existence of the fault in the sudden monoclinal folding produced in the Oamaru rocks along the base 
of the range. In the Takaka Valley the Oamaru rocks generally he horizontally or nearly so, but along 
the base of the Pikikiruna Range they dip at high angles away from the mountains, a feature particularly 
well illustrated in the Tata Islands. The physiographic effect of this sharp upturn has been to produce 
a remarkable limestone scarp along the base of the Pikikirunas so prominent as at once to arrest the 
attention of the observer. 

The fault separating the Oamaru rocks in the Takaka Valley from those in the Aorere Valley has 
given rise to a relative uplift on its northern side, thus bringing the Aorere rocks to the surface at 
Waitapu Hill, and also at a spot three-quarters of a mile south of Rangihaieta Head near the mouth 
of the Takaka River. From Rangihaieta Head, as the coast-line is traversed in a northerly direction 
to the Onahau, the several members of the series are encountered. They have been affected in several 
places by minor folding, and by faulting near Parapara Flat, but in general lie horizontal and are 
directly continuous with the Oamaru rocks in the Aorere Valley, forming with them one great central 
area. This block is bounded on the western side by a fault along the base of the "Wakamarama Range, 
and is down-tilted to the north-west, a fact proved by the general gentle north-westerly dip of the 
beds, though in places there are minor crumplings producing local dips to the east. 

The fault along the base of the Wakamarama Range is well shown by the fact that, while in the 
Aorere Valley the uppermost beds of the series lie almost at sea-level near the northern boundary of 
the subdivision, the lowest members of the series forming the third area referred to above occur near 
the Golden Ridge, about 1,000 ft. above sea-level, and are outliers from an area of rocks of the Oamaru 
Series sloping north-westward towards the Tasman Sea. 

The distinct unconformity of the Oamaru Series with the highly inclined underlying Palaeozoic 
rocks is to be seen in many places within the subdivision. At the Castles, beds of the Oamaru Series 
consisting of quartzose conglomerate overlain by limestone, and having a slight inclination of about 
10° towards the north-east, are seen in direct contact with the underlying somewhat graphitic phylhtes 
of the Aorere Series, these having a strike of south 42° east, with a north-easterly dip of 21°. 

Particularly good sections are to be observed in many places in the bed of the Aorere River, and 
on the south-eastern slopes of the Aorere Valley, especially in the lower part of Appo's Creek. Here 
the basement rocks consist of blackish phylhtes and. in places, cherty quartzites, generally dipping at 
high angles to the south-west. Overlying these Aorere rocks are patches of quartzose conglomerate, 
never more than 12 ft. in thickness, passing up in places into gritty sandstone, then limestone, and 
finally clays capped by later river sands and gravels. These beds have at most a very slight inclination 
from the horizontal. Near the mouth of Stanton Creek schistose conglomerate of the Haupiri Series, 
dipping at an angle of 63° to the east-south-east, is'directly overlain by horizontal fossiliferous limestone 
belonging to the series under discussion. Unconformities are further evidenced on the western shore of 
Parapara Inlet, where a pebbly quartz grit passing up into limestone unconformably overlies the decom- 











posed cherty quartzite of the Aorere Series. At Appo's Flat an unconformity exposed in a tunnel made 
in connection with sluicing operations shows a much slickensided face between the older rocks and the 
younger beds of conglomerate. In the extreme north-west of the subdivision near Golden Ridge good 
examples of unconformity have been observed, small patches of rock of this series being found filling 
basin-shaped areas in the older rocks. 


Only a few leaf-impressions are found in the coal-bearing beds of the Tertiary rocks of the sub- 
division, but fossils are fairly abundant in the two upper members. In all, twenty-seven species, 
mostly of Mollusca, have been reported by various observers, but this bv no means exhausts the lossili- 
ferous contents of the beds. During the past season a number of specimens belonging to other species 
were collected, but were too obscure for complete identification, and further work will doubtless very 
considerably increase the list of known species. A consideration of the known range of those fossils 
which have been fully identified has led the writers to place these beds in the Oamaru Series, which are 
considered to be of Miocene age. 

A table of fossils specifically identified by the present mid previous BUTVeya is appended. The 
names are given in the first column, whilst in the second are entered the localities with the name of the 
first co"ector of the species in each district. " B " standing for the presenl survey. In the third column 
the Tertiary period is subdivided according to Professor Hutton's classification, and an asterisk is placed 
under those formations m which each species is found. The evidence lor the range i»f the species in the 
case of the Mollusca is taken mainly from Professor Hutton's " Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru 
Systems,"t and in the case of the corals, from Tenison- Woods's " Corals and Brvozoa ol the Neozoic 
Period in New Zealand."* 



Locality and Fir-t Oolli £ 




1 * 



( '. lILKNTBB \T \. 

Flabdium eirevlart, Tenison- Woods 

near Ugi i Ba j B Silvei Btream 
(Oox, 26,5 P- 54) 



F. laticostatum, Tenison Woods 

d to Ligar Bay (B) .. 


F. radiant, Tenison Woods 

Silver 8tream(?) (Park, 40, p. ^41) 


Troehoeyathus manteUi, Milne Edwards 

to ] -I Bay (15) . . 



Sehizaster rotundatvs, Zittel .. 

Collingwooa (Hochstetter, 6, p. i>4). Motupipi 


Silver Stream l('...\ in. p. :>4 

■■/«.«. Zittel 

Motupipi (Hochstetter, ti. p. 65) 


Nli.l l.l -i . . 1 1 > K V. 

;/,//,/ dot iota, < rmelin . . 

SiK er Stream (B) 



MageUania lentieularis, Deshayes, -p. .. 

Tata Island, Motupipi (Hochstetter, 6, p. 66) 




IfageBania patagonica, Sowerby, -|> (Darwin's 

Motupipi B 



Geological Observations in South America, 
p. 262 

Mollusc v. 

Limo-peii aurita, Brocchi, ~\>. 

Road near Ligar Hay i Hi 



Ostrea Zittel 

Limestone oi district (Park, 41. p. 239) 


. . 

0. neUoniana, Zittel 

Island (Hutton, Proc. On. Soc. of 
N'.S.W.. ser. •_'. vol. i, pari i. p. •-':!") 



aihleta, Zittel 

Motupipi (Hochstetter, 6, p. 4<i). 1 
Island | Hutton, i.e., ]>. 233) 


P. burnetii, Zittel . . 

Motupipi Hochstetter, <i. p. .II). 'J'ata 
[aland, Takaka (Hutton. I.e., |>. 236) 



/'. hutchinsoni, Hutton 

Motupipi i H). silver Btream (Cox, 26, ]>. 54). 

. . 



Tata kland, Takaka (Hutton, I.e., p. _':S4) 

t Proc. Lin. Soc, N'.s.W.. - i. z. vol. vii, part i. 
J Wellington, Govt Printer, 1880. 
§ The numbers refer to the list of literature in Chapter i. 

jJThis rongly named Flabdlum papakvrerue) occurs in the Papakura beds, near Auckland, which appear 

mtologically to be intermediate between the Oamaru and Pareora System- (Clarke, Trans. X.Z. Inst., vol. xxxxii, 
pp. (10 and 120, pi. \\\ii. fit;- I and 2), 

4* — Karamea. 



Locality and .First Collector. 

Mollusca — coniiwued. 
P. radiatus, Hutton 
P. vdlicatus, Hutton 
Pseudamussium hochstetteri, Zittel, sp. 
Lima bvMata, Born, sp. 
/y. colon da, Hutton . . 
L. paucisulcata, Hutton 

Panopea arbita{1), Hutton 

Dentalium mantdli. Zittel 

Ciraotrema lyrata, Zittel, sp. . . 

Turritella ambulacrum, Sowerby. ( Darwin's South 

Strittliiolaria senex, Hutton . . 
S. tvbercvlata, Hutton 

Silver Stream (Paik, 41, p. 207) 

Silver Stream (Park, 41, p. '201) 

Silver Stream (Cox, 26, p. 54) 

Road near Ligar Bay (P>) 

Silver Stream (Park, 41. p. 207) 

Silver Stream (Cox, 26, p. 41). 
Ligar Bay (B) 

Park writes sulcata, which is possibly a mis- 
print for plicata, afterwards altered by 
Hutton to orbita (Hutton, Is., p. 223) 
Silver Stream (Park, 41. p 241) 

Silver Stream (Park, 41. p. 241) 

Limestone of district (Park, 41, p. 239) 

Silver Stream (Cox, 2(5, p. 54) 

. . * 

* * 

* * 

Road near 

* * 

Silver Stream (Park, 41, p. 207) 
Silver Stream (Park, 41. p. 207) 

Besides the foregoing the writers obtained two species of Pleurotoma, one each of Voluta and Natica, 
a new species of Astralium (Imperator), and a number of specimens too badly preserved to be specifically 
determined. The new species of Astralium is distinguished from A. imperialis by the short recurved 
spines of the body whorl. It bears a close resemblance to an undescribed species collected by Mr. A. 
Hamilton from the Hutchinson Quarry beds (of Oamaru age), but differs from it in being less com- 
pressed and in having no ornamentation on the base. 

Assuming the occurrences marked doubtful as correct, we may summarise the tabular statement 
as follows : — 

Of the fossils enumerated in the table, seven occur only in the Oamaru, two only in the Pareora, 
whilst ten occur in both formations but not in younger beds, and eight are found in one or both of the 
above formations and also in more modern beds. The palseontological evidence regarding the age of 
the Tertiary rocks of the Para para subdivision therefore indicates that they should be classed with 
the Oamaru System, though the presence of characteristic Pareora fossils may be regarded as evidence 
that they are intermediate between the Pareora and Oamaru Systems. 

Professor Hutton considered that though the Pareora and Oamaru Systems are closely related 
palaeontologically, yet they are almost always separated stratigraphically by an unconformity.! On 
the other hand, in a classification of New Zealand stratified formations recently drawn up by Mr. 
Alexander McKay and Professor James ParkJ the Pareora beds are placed as a subdivision of the 
Oamaru System. According to this scheme the beds under consideration would be regarded as a por- 
tion of the Oamaru System having its younger members equivalent to the " Pareora Clays," whilst 
the older beds would be contemporaneous with the " Waikouaiti beds." 

Petrology, and Description of Special Areas. 

As already remarked, the Oamaru Series consists of — (1) (a) quartzose conglomerates, (b) con 
glomerates, sandstones, shales, and coal-seams ; (2) limestone ; and (3) blue and yellow clays. 

(1.) (a.) The Quartzose Conglomerate. — The quartzose conglomerate, or, as it is frequently called 
in the subdivision " the quartz wash," consists almost entirely of pebbles and cobbles of quartz, 
quartzite, and grauwacke, embedded in a highly arenaceous groundmass. It represents material 
deposited along the margin of the old land as it sank beneath the Miocene sea. It is frequently pyri- 
tous and not seldom auriferous. Occasionally the arenaceous groundmass becomes calcareous, while 
the conglomerate shows coaly partings, and is frequently stained a brownish colour by carbonaceous 

f Proc. Lin. Soc. N.S.W., ser. 2, vol. i, part i. f To be published shortly. 


Gravels overlying Banded Phyllites, Quartz Ranges ing Company's Claim. 

Geo. Built tin Xo. 3.] 


matter. In places the quartzose conglomerate passes upward into a coarse sandstone or fine-grained 

The quartzose conglomerate is sometimes friable, again it is hard and compact — more especially 
on exposure to the atmosphere. It is often exceedingly rusty when weathered, owing to the 
oxidation of the contained pyrite. This oxidation is. however, retarded, and in places pre- 
vented, by the presence of abundant carbonaceous matter. The quartzose conglomerate is 
exposed on the Quartz Ranges, beneath the luuestones at the Castles, at Golden Gully, and 
at many other isolated points along the ridge lying west of the Parapara River, along Lightband 
Gully, at Appo's Flat, along Appo's Creek, in Glen Gyle, in Glen Mutchkin, in No. 1 and No. 2 
faces of the Parapara Sluicing Company's claim, at the mouth of Maori Gully, in Parapara Flat, and 
in Raby Riley Gully. 

The quartzose conglomerates occurring at the Quartz Ranges are somewhat different from those 
found elsewhere, since they are. in general, very little consolidated and contain noticeably fewer quartz 
pebbles than is usually the case. The boulders and cobbles consist chiefly of quartzite and quartz, 
with lesser quantities of schist, phyllite, grauwacke, and argillite. They occupy irregularities in the 
Aorere phyllites and qoartzitee (Plato XIX), and sometimes attain a thickness of 60 ft. Owing t<i 
their loose consolidation they were at first considered as belonging to the older debris of Pleistocene 
age. hut they apparently underlie the Oamaru limestone appearing in this locality, and for this reason 

hive been given their present classification. The lowest exposures are often extremely coarse, whilst 

above are roughly interstratafied layers of blackish argillaceous sandi and line gravels which weather 
to a buff colour (Plate XX). 

In the early days there were i rtensive workingB at the Quartz Ranges, and some years ago a 
company was formed to sluice the gravels on a large scale with water brought from Boulder Lake. 
This endeavour was QOl highly successful, is said, to poor management. At present the work 

is being successfully earned on in a modest way by miners working on tribute. During the past ten 
years gold to the value of £-">.s<mi has been won. 

The gold is generally fine and rounded, but sometimes irregular nug.ets weighing up to an ounce 
have been found, and pieces of '_' dwt. and .'5 dwt. are common. The gold is not very pure, and is worth 
about £3 10s. an ounce. 

The outcrop of conglomerate occurring beneath the extensive exposure ol limestone at the Castles 
is of some interest. In depth the lied averages 12 It. to 15 It., but pinches out in both northerly and 
southerly extension to a mere trace. The wash hen- consists for the most part "I pebbles of quartz 
and quartzite, but contains also pebbles oi light-grey and blackish phyllite, of an average diameter 

in the lower horizon of 6 in. to 8 in., but becoming smaller in SUM a- the bed is ascended. Occasionally, 
however, quartz and quartzite axe the onlj rooks represented in the pebbles and cobbles, and the con- 
glomerate then becomes more of a true quartz wash resembling that seen elsewhi 

The cementing arenaceous matrix is, at the Castles, impregnated with lime from calcareous 
solutions derived from the overlvin» limestone. A peculiarity of this bed of quartzose conglomerate 
is that it merges upward into limestone, showing that the deposition of the two was lor a time con- 
temporaneous. The quartzose conglomerate at the Castles is, t" a certain extent, auriferous, and gold 
was it one nine extracted from the more disintegrated parts of the bed by sluicing operations. The 
harder-cemented wash, however, defied all efforts m this direction, and as it was not sufficiently rich 
f<> warrant the erection of a stamper-battery, work was discontinued. 

The quartzose conglomerate has been sluiced for gold at Golden Gully, in Sailor Gully, and at 
Lightband Gully. In Sailor Gully there occurs a 1 ft. seam of highly pyritous coal, apparently con- 
formablv overlain by white wash like that of Golden Gully. In Golden Gully the wash is of gTeat 
depth, and probably occupies a down-faulted block. In the early days much gold was obtained from 
this field — it is said some 40,000 oz. in a few months — though, owing to the scarcity of water, only the 
surface was touched. In Lightband Gully the wash, which is friable, often fine-grained and gritty, 
and exhibits false bedding, appears along the stream on either side. It has yielded a considerable 
amount of gold in the past. As will be remarked later, the quartz-wash here occurring may be partly 
reassorted and of later age than Oamaru. 


There are extensive old workings in and around Appo's Flat, where at present the gravels are being 
sluiced by the* Parapara Sluicing Company. At Appo's Flat the quartzose conglomerates occur in 
a down-faulted area, triangular in shape ; they are overlain by stratified recent gravels, and underlain 
by crystalline carbonate. Very probably the subsidence of the latter resulted in the down-faulting, 
which has given the conglomerates their present position. The conglomerates at Appo's Flat are 
distinctly consolidated, though not so much so as they are elsewhere. They are very light in colour, 
axe shattered and quite without structure, and show a somewhat irregular surface beneath the over- 
lying alluvium. They contain much carbonaceous matter and also pyrite. which in places, by its 
oxidation, gives a rusty outcrop. The gold now being obtained in sluicing operations is derived 
mainly from the quartzose conglomerates, though the overlying gravels also supply a small quantity. 
Id the past the reassorted gravels gave most of the wealth of the Flat. 

The extent of the quartzose conglomerate is still uncertain, and must remain so until prospecting 
in every part of the Flat, over all of which it has probably lateral extension, has been carried out. 
Shafts have proven that near the eastern end the wash continues downward to a depth of 113 ft. 
However, as in most areas underlain by so uncertain a bottom as carbonate, it may be expected to be 
of very unequal thickness. 

The Parapara Sluicing Company is at present sluicing its debris through a tunnel into Appo's 
Creek. As vet. elevation of the tailings is not necessary, but it will be required as the work proceeds. 
Though operations on Appo's Flat have been but recently started by the present company, gold to 
the value of £996 16s. 5d. has already been won. 

The concentrates from the sluicing operations carried on at Appo's Flat show small pieces of iron- 
ore and metallic iron ; crystals of chromite and magnetite ; more or less rounded fragments of lead, 
sometimes large and possibly native* ; crystals of pyrite, ilmenite, and garnet ; small particles of 
quartz ; and occasional colours and small nuggets of gold. An assay made from the concentrates, 
after most of the gold had been removed, showed the precious and rare metals to be present as follows : — 

Oz. dwt. gr. 

Gold . . - . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Silver . , . . . . . . . . . . 

Platinum . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Iridium and osmium . . . . . . 

On the hills to the south of Appo's Flat are small patches of quartzose conglomerate, generally 
highly auriferous, which have not been down-faulted. Glen Gyle Gully and the Hit-or-Miss Claim at 
the head of Glen Gyle formerly contained a great deal of quartzose conglomerate in a deep gut along 
a great structural break, complicated by subsidence of underlying carbonate. Now most of the con- 
glomerate has been sluiced away, gold to the extent of £20,000 having been obtained from the two 
claims — the Glen Gyle and the Hit-or-Miss — by the Parapara Sluicing Company. The concentrates 
obtained during sluicing operations are much more pyritous than those from the Appo's Flat Claim. 
A sample of the concentrates from which no gold had been removed was first of all carefully amalga- 
mated, and gold at the rate of 375 oz. 3 dwt. 5 gr. to the ton. and silver at the rate of 41 oz. dwt. 
9 gr. to the ton, were thus obtained. After amalgamation no fine gold was visible, and. therefore, 
the gold obtained by fire assay as given below is probably in the pyrite. 

The gold recovered by assay of amalgamated concentrates amounted to 2 oz. dwt. 8 gr. per ton ; 
value per ton, £8 Is. 4d. The fire assay also yielded — platinum, 2 oz. 10 dwt. 10 gr. per ton, gross 
value per ton, £12 10s.; iridium, 10 oz. 4 dwt. 5 gr. per ton. gross value per ton, £86. The values 
for platinum and iridium are only approximate, and no deduction has been made for the cost of pre- 
paration of the metals in a marketable form. 

Glen Mutchkin. a deep, sluiced gulch, formerly contained a considerable amount of quartzose 
conglomerate and still shows small patches which were not sluiced away during mining operations, 
owing to the danger of slips from the steep slopes on either side. The Avash in Glen Mutchkin has been 
down-faulted along the extensive structural break, which has also involved both Glen Gvle and the 
Hit-or-Miss Claim, and very probably Golden Gully. 

* Skey, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi, 1888, p. 367 ; Park, loc. cit., vol. xxsv, 1902, p. 403. 


8 per ton. 


11 „ 



— J* 

15 „ 


Before sluicing operations had commenced there was a considerable amount of quartzose con- 
glomerate in both No. 1 and No. 2 faces. In both places the conglomerate was protected from denuda- 
tion by being held in areas of subsidence on underlying carbonate. Now only small patches of con- 
glomerate and the friable sandstone into which it sometimes passes are left. The conglomerate 
is often exceedingly hard, and is generally very pyritous. Small coaly partings are visible, 
and the rock is stained yellowish, greenish, blackish, and brownish by weathering. The Parapara 
Sluicing Company has obtained gold to the value of £3,721 from Xo. 1 face, and to the value of £1,776 
from No. 2 face. 

Sluicing operations were formerly conducted by the Parapara Sluicing Company on Parapara Flat, 
and gold to the value of £1,851 was extracted. The quartzose conglomerate is said to have been rich, 
and distinctly payable, despite the fact that the lowlving nature of the country necessitated the use of 
elevators. Operations were suspended by the Parapara Sluicing Company owing to a dispute which 
arose between it and the owners of the land. 

(b.) Conglomerates, Shales with Coal-seams, and Sandstones. — This coal-bearing formation occurs 
in the sequence given above, though all the members are not always present. The conglomerates 
are the oldest rocks, and the sandstones passing into quartz-grits form the highest strata. The con- 
glomerates, which are but little exposed in the area now being described, vary lithologically in the 
several parts of the subdivision, depending on the character of the underlying rock. Near the Golden 
Ridge they consist of pebbles of quartz, quartzite, and grauwacke. in a quartzose matrix, while elsewhere, 
outside the limits of the subdivision, their character is somewhat different. In some places the pebbles 
become angular, and the conglomerates pass into breccias. The shales which appear wherever coal- 
seams are exposed, and also in the Onahau and elsewhere, are generally highly carbonaceous, and 
contain impressions of leaves and stems oi dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. Near the 
coal they are sometimes fireclays. The coal-seams associated with the shales are generally thin and 
of small extent. The coals are not sufficiently high in fixed carbon to be called bituminous, and may 
all be considered as brown coals, varying in quality from high grade to very low made. 

The sandstones arc both highly quartzose and highly feldspathic, and arc reallj arkoses. They 
are very often triable, and occasionally contain coaly partings. As already remarked, they pass up- 
wards in places into grits, while sometimes near the underlying shah's they are argillaceous, with 
layers of shale interstratified. 

The coal-bearing formation has its maximum development in the south-eastern portion of the 
subdivision, appearing continuously on and near the coast-line from Rangihaieta Head to Pohara, 
with the exception of the prominent inlier of Waifapu Hill, and outcropping again round Ligar Bay. 
Inland, though generally obscured by limestone or debris, it appears in occasional outcrops up the Takaka 
Valley as far as the southern boundary of the subdivision. It also appears for some miles inland from 
Rangihaieta Head, being exposed in the cuttings of the road between Waitapu and Parapara, and on 
the Onahau and Puremahais streams. In the extreme north-west, in the vicinity of the Golden Ridge, 
the occurrences of the coal-bearing formation are of small extent, being, as already stated, but outliers 
from a vast formation several hundreds of feet in thickness developed further to the north and beyond 
the limits of the district described in this report. 

The best sections of the Oamaru beds are to be observed on the coast-line of Golden Bay, although 
in no case is contact with the underlying Palaeozoic rocks there visible. In the Golden Ridge area, 
however, distinct unconformity with the highly inclined Aorere rocks is observable. In this case the 
lowest member of the formation is a quartzitic breccia, following which comes a succession of argil- 
laceous sandstones, fireclays, and coal-seams. Near the mouth of the Takaka River, exposed at and 
below high-water mark, two small seams of lignite separated by about 3 ft. f> in. of an argillaceous 
and somewhat arkositic sandstone, and passing up into a considerable thickness of carbonaceous shale 
and sandstone, are to be seen. Overlying this, as Rangihaieta Head is approached, come yrell- 
developed beds of coarse and fine arkositic sandstones, while close to the headland these are followed 
by coarse quartz grits. 

Near the mouth of tne Motupipi River two seams of coal are exposed in a low bank at low-water 
mark, the upper being 1 ft. and the lower 2 ft. 6 in. in thickness, separated by 2 ft. 8 in. of carbonaceous 


shale and fireclay. Here a prospecting-shaft is said to show the existence beneath these of two other 
seams 10 in. and 4 ft. in thickness respectively, separated by several feet of clay and shale. 

Overlying the coals is an accumulation of coarse and fine sandstones, forming the low hills bordering 
the eastern side of the Motupipi River, and extending southward beyond the bridge on the Takaka- 
Clifton Road. In the escarpment of these beds on the coast-line a thin bed of quartz and quartzite 
pebbles interstratified with the shales and sandstones is exposed. This wash, which has a maximum 
thickness where exposed of 18 in., is somewhat auriferous, and has at times paid for sluicing on a small 
scale. It is again exposed near the Motupipi Bridge, where it immediately overlies the two upper 
coal-seams, these being at this point each 20 in. in thickness and separated by a thin bed of shale. The 
coal in these two last localities has been worked for many years, and once had a considerable local 
demand. It has. however, been ousted from the market by a better class of coal from Puponga, north 
of the subdivision, and is now used only to a limited extent for household purposes and in the local 
manufacture on a small scale of lime and cement. 

The following are the results of analyses of samples of coal selected from these seams at 
Motupipi : — 

1. 2. 3.* 4-t 5-f 6-t 7.+ 8.f 

Fixed carbon . . 41-28 42-70 32-85 38-70 39-30 38-10 38-40 40-10 

Volatile hydrocarbon 41-90 41-00 37-45 41-10 38-70 37-20 39-10 40-30 

Water .. .. 14-40 13-70 20-50 16-60 16-80 15-90 18-90 17-30 

Ash .. .. 2-42 2-60 9-20 3-60 5-20 8-80 3-60 2-30 

100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 

Total sulphur . . 4-89 5-66 2-50 Average, 5-2 per cent. 

None of the samples cake on heating, the coal being a brown coal of fair quality suitable for house- 
hold purposes. 

A somewhat remarkable occurrence near the coal-seams of Motupipi is that of a 3 ft. band of highly 
ferruginous sandstone, passing in places into limonitic iron-ore, which is exposed at low water in the 
eastern bank of the Motupipi River. This is apparently merely a local phase of the argillaceous 
sandstones overlying the shales. 

On the Takaka River near Payne's Bridge, in the extreme south of the subdivision, there is an 
occurrence of coal with shales and sandstones. The coal closely resembles that of Motupipi in quality 
and general appearance. In the upturned beds along the base of the Pilrikiruna Range coal-seams 
of somewhat inferior quality appear, associated with beds of feldspathic clays. The following analysis 
shows the nature of the coal : — 

Fixed carbon . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 39-20 

Volatile hydrocarbon . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-50 

Water .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. 14-90 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6-40 


Total sulphur , . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21 

Near the head of Coffee Creek, westward from the Golden Ridge, a small area of coal-bearing forma- 
tion fills a basin-shaped depression in the Palaeozoic rocks. Here a seam of coal having a maximum 

* Report of Colonial Analyst, 1905. t Report of Colonial Analyst, 1906. 


thickness of 4 ft., but thinning out in all directions, occurs interbedded with shales and argillaceous 
sandstones. This coal is bright and clean, and is used with satisfactory results in the mine-smithies 
as well as for household purposes. On analysis, a sample of this coal shows the following com- 
position : — 

Fixed carbon . . . . . . . . . . ■ • • • 42-13 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . . . . . 41-72 

Water .. .. .. .. .. 10-27 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. 5-88 

Total sulphur . . . . . . . . . . 0-64 

On heating, the coal cokes without swelling to form a fairly hard coke and burns to a greyish- 
brown ash. 

In another small area on the western slope of the Golden Ridge, near the Old Golden Ridge Mine, 
a 3 ft. seam of coal very similar to the previous has been used for household purposes. Tin- following 
is an analysis of a sample from this seam : — 

Fixed carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-29 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . 39-58 

Water .. 11-47 

Ash . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-66 

Total sulphur .. .. 1-18 

On Jimmy Creek, east of the Aoraniii battery, a third inconsiderable area of coal-bearing strata 

nosed. The coal, which occurs in a 2 ft. seam, is of low grade, being really a carbonaceous shale 

with small seams of true coal aggregating about 6 in. to 8 in. in thickness. It is used as fuel for the 

boilers in the Aorangi battery, but is exceedingly dirty and unsatisfactory. 

(2.) Limestone. — The limestone varies considerably in quality, being sometimes arenaceous and 
Bometdmes argillaceous, or again of great purity. In the Takaka Valley the formation seldom exceeds 
100 ft. in thickness, while in the Aorere Valley the thickness was nowhere observed to exceed 50 ft. 

In the Aorere Valley limestone occurs at intervals along the river-bank from a little below Clark 
River to the mouth of Appo's Creek, in Silver Stream, in Fifteen-mile Creek, along Appo's Creek, in the 
Little Boulder, in very small remnants at the Quartz Ranges, in buttes at Burnt Hill and Bungapore, 
between Fletcher ('reek and Stanton Creek, in a prominent area near the Castles, and at other parts. 

Near the mouth of the Parapara River the limestones extend from Appo's Flat through Raby 
Riley Gully to Parapara Inlet. The limestones appear prominently at Rangihaieta Head, and in the 
Takaka Valley, along the base of the 1'ikikirunas. in low buttes occurring at intervals from the base of 
the 1'ikikirunas to the coast-line, on the eastern bank of the Motupipi, along the coast-line from Pohara 
to Ligar Bay, at the Tata Islands, and elsewhere. 

In the Aorere Valley the limestone is in general exceedingly argillaceous, and in the lower horizon 
it is frequently decidedly arenaceous. 

The following are analyses of general samples of limestone from several parts of the Aorere 
Valley :— 

(1.) Lower part, outcrop at Castles. 
(2.) Upper part, outcrop at Castles. 
(3.) Fifteen-mile Creek, Aorere River. 


Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 
Water and organic matter 
Alkalies and undetermined 






11 44 






















A sample of arenaceous limestone from Parapara Inlet had on analysis the following com- 
position : — 

Silica (Si0 8 ) 


Alumina (A1 2 3 ) . . 


Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 


Manganous oxide (MnO) 


Lime (CaO) 


Titanium dioxide (Ti0 2 ) 


Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) . 


Water and undetermined 



At Rangihaieta Head the calcareous beds do not exceed 50 ft. in thickness, and are more inclined 
than usual, the strata dipping at an angle of about 35° to the north. The limestone here directly 
overlies the quartz grits of the coal-bearing formation and is in its lower horizons exceedingly arena- 
ceous. Like the limestone seen elsewhere along the coast-line, it is characteristically banded, the bands 
averaging from 4 in. to 6 in. in width. The alternate bands are usually of a more or less arenaceous 
nature, though in places quite free from "quartz-particles. 

The following shows the result of an analysis of an average sample of limestone from Rangihaieta 
Head :— 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 


Alumina (A1 2 a ) 


Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 


Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 

1 61 

Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 

37 05 

Water and organic matter 


Alkalies and loss 



On the eastern bank of the Motupipi River a baud of limestone extends from the river-mouth to 
near the bridge on the Takaka-Clifton Road. It apparently has a steep dip to the west, but this is pro- 
bably due to the undermining action of the river, the underlying strata lying fairly horizontally. This 
limestone has been worked on a small scale for lime and cement. The following analysis of a sample 
shows its nature : — 


Silica (SiO ,) 
Alumina (A1,0 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe ; 3 ) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Carbonic anhydride (CO..) 
Loss on ignition 
Alkalies and undetermined 










Between Pohara and Ligar Bay the formation is well developed, attaining a maximum thickness 
of over 200 ft., and appearing in steep cliffs along the coast-line. 

The following are the results of analyses of samples selected : — 

Silica (SiO a ) 
Alumina (ALU;,) 
Ferric oxide ( Fe , < I 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Carbonic anhydride (C0 9 ) 
Loss on ignition 
Alkalies and undetermined 





















On the Lata [glands the limestone is well banded, and shows occasional thick beds of fossil oysters 
(Ottrea nelsoniana and 0. ingentf). The stone here has been worked for the manufacture of cement 
by a Picton company with highly satisfactory results. The following is the resull of an analysis of an 
average sample : — 

Silica (Si0 3 ) 

Alumina (A1,0 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe a 8 ) 
Lime (CaO) 
.Magnesia (MgO) 
Carbonic anhydride (COj) 
Water and organic matter 
Alkalies and undetermined 

5 14 


1 -60 







(3.) Blue mid Yellow Clays. — The blue and yellow clays, often locally called " papa." are sometimes 
well banded, again they are massive and structureless. The blue clay is the unweathered rock, while the 
yellow clay is that which has been exposed to the atmosphere. The clays, which consist mainly of minute 
particles of chlorite, kaolin, and quartz, contain generally a small amount of lime, not, however — with 
the exception of the lower beds— in sufficient quantity to warrant the application of the term " marl." 
Like the " blue bottom " of North Westland, the clays frequently contain calcareous concretions, 
spheroidal or lensoid in shape. The clays are in places upwards of 100 ft. in thickness, and are pro- 
bably often suitable for the manufacture of bricks, though seldom for finer purposes, such as pottery. 


An analysis of a sample obtained at the junction of Appo's Flat Road and the old Collingwood Road 
gave the following results : — 

Silica (SiO a ) 


Iron-oxides (FeO and Fe 2 3 ) 


Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 


Manganous oxide (MnO) 


Lime (CaO) 



Magnesia (MgO) 





Water and organic matter . . • 



Some doubt has been raised as to the relation of these beds to the limestone, Cox* considering them 
to have been laid down prior to the deposition of the limestone. Doubt on this point is at once set 
at rest by the section exposed at Rangihaieta Head and well illustrated by Parkf, where the lowest 
of these beds, a sandy marl, is seen to conformably overlie the limestone. Similar sections are exposed 
on the low hill overlooking Ligar Bay, in the south-east, where horizontally stratified sandy marls 
pass conformably down into limestone, which, close by. reaches nearly to sea-level and is underlain by 
older sandstones and shales in the Fifteen-mile Creek, a branch of the Aorere River, where sandy 
marls overlie limestone and pass upwards into bluish-grey clays, and again near Parapara Inlet. 

The clays are the most widely distributed of all the beds of the Oamaru formation within the 
subdivision. They are best seen in low-lying areas, where their but slightly elevated position has 
preserved them from the effects of the general denudation experienced at higher levels. 

In the valley of the Aorere the clays appear on the high terraces bordering the stream on both 
sides, in an area close to the river-bank from Brown River to below Eliot Creek, along the river just 
above Bainham, and extending thence away from the river in a wide area to and beyond Rockville, 
and along the river below the mouth of Appo's Creek. The clays extend through from the Aorere 
to the Parapara Inlet, overlying the limestone, and are exposed almost continuously along the sea- 
shore from Parapara Inlet to the Pariwhakaoho River. They appear along the banks of all the small 
streams north of the Puremahaia, flowing from the old land to Golden Bay. 

They outcrop a little to the north of Rangihaieta Head, and overlie the limestone near Pohara 
and Ligar Bay. At Pohara and Ligar Bay, in the outcrop just north of Rangihaieta Head, and some- 
times in Cook Creek and in Fifteen-mile Creek, the clays are marly, forming, apparently, the lowest 
stratum of the clay formation. 

Special Features of Economic Importance. 

From a perusal of the foregoing dissertation, it will be seen that the Oamaru Series presents many 
features of interest from an economic standpoint. 

Gold. — It has been shown that alluvial gold occurs in the quartzose conglomerate, or white wash. 
exposed on the south-eastern slopes of the Aorere River, and towards the mouth of the Parapara River, 
and also in the wash associated with the sandstones and shales of the coal-bearing formation in the 
low hills at Motupipi. In the last case the extent and depth of the bed scarcely warrants its inclusion 
amongst the economic possibilities of the district, the great amount of overburden requiring to be re- 
moved, debarring it from any likelihood of ever being worked with profit. The quartzose conglomerate 
near the Parapara River has been nearly worked out. There are. however, some spots as yet untouched 
which present possibilities of economic importance. Of these, one is an irregularly bounded area ljing 
around and to the west of Washbourn's Pond, and to the south of Mr. H. P. Washbo urn's house, com- 
prising in all an extent of about 16 acres. North of this area on the Parapara Flat, to the east of 
No. 1 face, a considerable amount of wash still remains to be worked. 

Geol. Rep., 1881, p. 3 ; Geol. Rep., 1882, p. 53. 

f Geol. Rep., No. 20, 1890, p. 222. 


Coal. — Coal has been shown to exist in several places in the south-east of the subdivision, as well 
as in the extreme north-west. Though the coal in the latter area is of high grade, yet the extremely 
limited extent of the coal-bearing formation within the subdivision debars it from being considered 
as an important economic feature. In the south-east of the subdivision fairly good household coal 
has been shown to exist in several localities and possibly occurs beneath the overlying sandstone through- 
out the area covered by the Oamaru sediments. The beds, as we have seen, have been mined in several 
places, but the coal is generally of low grade, and consequently there is now but little demand for it. 
The seams have, moreover, been proved to be of no great thickness, thus increasing the cost of winning 
the coal. It is, however, possible that the coal may improve both in quality and in thickness of 
seam in other parts of the area, where boring operations might result in good finds. Since coal 
appears in the up-faulted Oamaru beds to the north of the subdivision in the Wakamarama Range, 
it will probably be found to continue beneath the Miocene strata in the Aorere Valley. 

Limestone.— Of considerable economic importance is the widespread occurrence of limestone dis- 
tributed in easily accessible positions throughout the subdivision. Limestone suitable for the manu- 
facture of lime and for supplying the predominant lime-content of cement is to be found at Parapara 
Inlet, at Rangihaieta Head, at Motupipi, along the coast-line from Pohara to Ligar Bay, and at the 
Tata Islands. The limestone described is also fit for use as a basic flux in metallurgical operations, 
and the outcrop at Parapara Inlet is. in this respect, exceptionally conveniently situated in regard 
toj the iron-ore of the district. 

Clays. — Both the marly clays of the uppermost formation of the Oamaru Series and some of the 
feldspathic shales of the coal-bearing formation are suitable for supplying the argillaceous matter 
which has to be mixed with lime in cement-manufacture 

In the prospecting-ahaft near the mouth of the Motupipi River mentioned on j>. •"><>. a bed of siliceous 
clay eminently suitable for use in the manufacture of aiHoa brick is reported to have been encountered. 

The clays of the highest formation are generally suitable for brickmaking, and in some places for 
rough pottery. Finer pottery can be produced from beds of clay associated with the shales of the 
coal-measures exposed in Ellis Creek, in Dry River, and elsewhere along the base of the Pikikiruna 
Range. In Ellis Creek the bed of clay is from 6 tt. to 8 It. in thickness, and passes in places into a 
fairly pure kaolin, elsewhere becoming carbonaceous. Unfortunately, its organic content or some 
other impurity has the effect of preventing articles of pottery from taking a glaze, unless they have 
been subjected to a preliminary burning pro. 

A more satisfactory clay is exposed in a 2 it seam in the bed of the Dry River. Here the clay, 
though decidedly carbonaceous, has less of the objectionable impurity, the clay burning boa pure white 

and taking the glaze more readily. 

The following analyses of clavs from Kittv Creek. Ellis Creek, and Dry River will prove of 
interest : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Kitty Greek. 
.. . 49-50 







Dry River. 



Alumina (Al 2 () 3 ) 





Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 





Lime (CaO) 



I .(X) 


Magnesia (MgO) 





( larbonic anhydride (CO,) 


Not det. 

Not det. 

Not det. 

Water and organic matter 





Alkalies and undetermined 





KKXK) KK)-00 KNMX) l(NMN) 




Page. Page. 

Content and Age of the Older Debris .. 62 I Content, Age, and Distribution of the Xewer Debris ti3 

Distribution of the Older Debris .. 62 | Auriferous Leads in the Older and Newer D6bris . . 64 

Content and Age of the Older Debris. 

The older debris consists entirely of unconsolidated or very loosely consolidated gravels, containing 
cobbles and pebbles derived from all the earlier terrains exposed in the subdivision. These gravels are 
cither faintly bedded fluviatile or fluvio-marine gravels, or else structureless morainic debris. The older 
debris contains no fossils, and its age is therefore uncertain. However, we may suppose that its deposi- 
tion began when the land was elevated after the Miocene subsidence and was continued through Pleis- 
tocene times, reaching its maximum chiring the period when glaciers occupied the lofty heights in the 
rugged hinterland. In many places the older debris overlies the Oamaru rocks in marked unconformitv, 
noticeably in the alluvial workings at Appo's Flat, and in cuttings on the Parapara - Waitapu Road. 
The river and marine gravels of the older debris are sometimes with difficulty distinguished from the 
newer gravels of similar origin, which the former generally resemble in lithological character, and into 
which they grade imperceptibly in age. 

Distribution of the Older Debris. 

The older debris is widely distributed in the Parapara subdivision. In the Takaka and Aorere 
Valleys it appears on both sides of the main streams as well as along their many tributaries. It also 
surmounts the Oamaru strata, along the eastern shores of Golden Bay, and appears at high levels south 
of the subdivision in Slate and Snows Rivers, and round Boulder Lake. 

The older debris outcropping along the shores of Golden Bay and in the Aorere and Takaka Valleys 
probably consists mainly of fluvio-marine gravels deposited along the sea-margin by the various 
streams as the land gradually rose after the Miocene subsidence. The deposits around Boulder Lake 
and in the valleys of Slate and Snows Rivers are largely morainic in character. 

In the Aorere and Takaka Valleys and along the eastern shores of Golden Bay the uppermost 
gravels of the older debris occur at fairly high levels, and were probably laid down in late Tertiary times 
by the ancient rivers as they gradually cut their way towards a base level not yet attained in the land 
elevated after the Miocene depression. The deposition of these gravels probably succeeded the great 
seismic disturbances by which the Miocene strata were faulted and e'evated. The gravels occurring 
in scattered terraces between the highest levels and the lowest terraces bordering the flood plains 
are apparently of every age from late Tertiary up to Recent. 

In places the gravels of the older debris are probably a reassortment of the quartzose conglomerate 
of the Oamaru Series. The resemblance between the quartzose conglomerate and the reassorted rocks 
is marked, and in places it is difficult to distinguish between the two. For example, the quartzose 
gravels occurring at the top of Lightband Gully, which have been considered as of Oamaru age since 
they are more or less consolidated, may in reality belong to the older debris since they exhibit false 
bedding, a feature which may, however, be explained by supposing them to have been deposited by 
streams close to the margin of the Miocene sea. In general, however, it may be said that the Oamaru 
rocks are much more consolidated than the later rocks which sometimes so closely resemble them. 
The river-gravels of the older debris are occasionally auriferous. 

The morainic debris is most conspicuous round Boulder Lake, where it appears as isolated patchy 
moraines, never of great thickness, to the north and west of the lake inside the subdivision, and extends 


down the Boulder River for a short distance. Outside of the subdivision, a fine and extensive lateral 
moraine borders the lake and the stream entering from the south, on the south-western side 
(Plate XXI). Higher up the valley small, hummock)*, lateral moraines appear. The morainic debris 
round Boulder Lake consists of boulder-clays and hard-pans with an argillaceous and arenaceous 
matrix respectively, in which are embedded boulders and cobbles of granite, schist, phyllite, quartz, 
diorite, and Haupiri conglomerate. The boulders are often of large size and are not infrequently 
angular 01 Bubangulai. 

The morainic debris in Snows River appears from the headwaters of the stream outside of the 
subdivision to the mouth of Waterfall Creek. It is never in great quantity, and occurs only as moundy 
terminal moraines Hanking the present watercourse on either side. What is apparently an old lateial 
moraine appears on the western bank about 200 ft. above the present stream-level between Bray Creek 
and Specimen Creek. 

On the Slate River the morainic debris is even less conspicuous than on Snows River, and appears 
mostly outside of the subdivision near the cirque at the head of the stream. 

The morainic debris in Slate and Snows Rivers is mostly a boulder-clay, with pebbles and boulders 
of schist, conglomerate, basic and semi-basic igneous rock, but no granite, a fact which indicates 
that the glaciers did not How from the lofty granite boss of Lead Hill. 

Along the southern shores of Parapara Inlet coarse, heterogeneous, compact conglomerate in places 
underlies assorted bedded gravels. It has a distinctly glacial appearance, but is probably more 

iCtly correlated with the qnartzose conglomerate at the base of the Oamani Series. 

Content, Age, and Distribution ok the Newer Debris. 

The newer debris consists chiefly of marine, estuarine, fluviatile, and, to a less degree, of lacustrine 
and cave deposits, and accumulations of wind-blown sand and rock talus. The newer debris is of recent 
age and actually now in process of formation. 

Mmine Deposits. — The marine deposits which occur close io the present sea-margin are incon- 
siderable in extent. Except in rare oases, gravel and shingle axe no longer being deposited along the 
shore-line. This is due to the streams being of gentle gradient for Borne distance above their mouths, 
in consequence of which the coarse material carried down is deposited before reaching the coast-line, 
only the finer sand and mud being carried out to sea. Bandy beaches are. however, now being formed, 
in some places from 1" to 12 chains in width at low tide (Plate III). These fringe the coast-line 
throughout, broken here and there. , is at Rangihaieta Mead and between I'ohara and Ligai Bay, by 
cliffs of limestone, and northward in the direction of Separation Point by granite bluffs. The sand is 
usually grev in colour, consisting of fine white quartz mixed with other material, chiefly argillaceous, 
derived from the denudation of the clays so conspicuous round the coast-line. On the beach to the 
north-east of Ligar Bay the disintegration of the neighbouring granite lias yielded a coarse yellow 
sand. Mixed with the sands are abundant shells. Hound Parapara Inlet and at the mouths of the 
various streams, including the Takaka. are flat stretches marking the contact between the coastal 
plain and the flood plains of the streams. These flats exhibit deposits of gravels, elevated in places 
only a few feet above high-water mark. These gravels were probably deposited by the various 
entering streams, and are most correctly considered as fluvio-niarine. On the coast-line near the 
mouth of the Puremahaia coarse fluvio-marine gravels form a compact conglomerate, with ferruginous 

Estuarine Deposits. — The estuarine deposits consist chiefly of silt and sand brought down by the 
various rivers and streams of the district, and deposited at their mouths. The most extensive deposits 
of this character fonn the low flats and islets of the delta at the mouth of the Takaka River. Associated 
with these are spacious mud-flats, covered at high tide, but at low tide extending out to sea for a con- 
siderable distance. In the inlets at the mouths of the Parapara, Onakaka, Onahau, Puremahaia, and 
Motupipi, and also further to the east in Motupipi Plat, and in the northern arm of Ligar Bay similar 
mud-flats are to be seen at low water. These cover a total area of about two square miles, 


Fluviatile Deposits. — The modern fluviatile deposits represent, geologically, the flood plains of 
the various streams. They consist chiefly of roughly stratified gravels with occasional sandy layers 
and lenses, often showing false bedding, and outcropping along the various streams which they border. 
They are naturally most conspicuous along the Takaka and Aorere Rivers, since these, being large 
streams, are bordered by the most extensive flood plains. Small patches, however, occur along even 
the smallest watercourses. These fluviatile gravels consist chiefly of detritus derived from the older 

The separation of the modern fluviatile deposits from the youngest gravels of the older debris 
seen on the lowest terraces must be considered purely arbitrary, since one may be considered practic- 
ally a continuation of the other. 

Some of the marine and fluviatile recent gravels are auriferous, though much of the precious metal 
has been removed by the persistent efforts of the gold-seeker. 

Lacustrine Deposits. — Lacustrine deposits are but poorly represented in the subdivision. The 
infilling of Boulder Lake has resulted in the reclamation of small areas around its margin, chiefly at 
its southern end, outside the limits of the subdivision, but to a small degree elsewhere along its border. 

The deposits in and around Washbourn's Dam were probably laid down in an old pond. The 
shrunken remnant of this old pond, which was swampy ground, was taken advantage of in the con- 
struction of the dam. 

The gravels overlying the quartzose conglomerate in Appo's Flat resemble a lake deposit, a suggestion 
which gains support from the conformation of the country. 

( are Deposits. — The caves occurring in the limestone buttes overlookmg the Slate River Sluicing 
Claim, between Wakefield Gully and Stanton Creek, have in the past yielded abundant moa-remains. 
These were found chiefly in the calcareous deposits which formed the floor of the caves. 

Talus and Wind-Mown Sand. — On the slopes of the high ridges of the subdivision talus-deposits 
are of common occurrence, being produced largely by the action of alternating extremes of temperature 
on the rocks. In various places along the coast-line where the country is low. sand-dunes, though 
never of any considerable extent, are of common occurrence. They are most conspicuous along the 
shore of Golden Bay southward from the mouth of the Parapara to Tukurua Stream, and between 
Motupipi and Pohara. 

Auriferous Leads in the Older and Newer Dkbris. 

Some of the fluviatile and of the probably marine gravels of the older debris are auriferous, as are 
some of the fluviatile, marine, and supposedly lacustrine gravels of the newer debris. Of these various 
gravels the richest were the fluviatile gravels of the newer debris, which were a reconcentration not 
only of the auriferous gravels of the older debris, but also of the auriferous quartzose wash at the 
base of the Oamaru Series. To the recent fluviatile gravels belong the bonanzas of the lower 
Slate River, most of those in the upper Snows and middle Rocky Rivers, in Cole Creek, Bedstead 
Gully, Lightband Gully, Appo's Creek, Doctor Creek, in the tributaries of the upper Aorere, and in 
Victoria Creek. 

Also of great richness in the past were the terraces of older fluviatile debris occurring in places 
along the lower Slate River, especially at Moonlight Flat, at Rocky River, and elsewhere. 

Some of the marine 01 fluvio-rnarine grav?ls on the terraces flanking the eastern shoies of Golder 
Bay were auriferous, as were those lying to the north of the Pariwhakpoho, and in the headwaters of 
the Otere. The recent marine or fluvio-rnarine debris near the mouth of Parapara Inlet has yielded 
some gold by dredging, and the recent debris overlying the quartzose conglomerate at Appo's Flat 
also gives a little alluvial gold. 

Most of the alluvial gold has now been won, and there remain only small quantities in the various 
streams. The terraces of older fluviatile debris on Rocky River still support a few diggers, and 
undoubtedly more profitable returns could be obtained by sluicing on a larger scale than is possible 
with the limited means at the disposal of the present proprietors. 

In the upper Snows River, between the mouths of Bray and Waterfall Creeks, there is still a con- 
siderable amount of auriferous debris. This debris is apparently partly older fluviatile gravels, partly 


older morainic gravels, and partly newer fluviatile gravels. The values at the present day are mostly 
in the older fluviatile gravels, most of the rich portions of the newer gravels having been removed in 
the early days. The older fluviatile gravels are partly shrouded by morainic gravels, but it is said that 
test-pits have proved gold to exist in them. If the auriferous gravels extend continuously beneath 
the moraines there must still be a fair amount of payable wash in this locality. It is said that these 
gravels would have been worked long ago had it not been for the difficulty attendant upon the removal 
of the heavier morainic boulders. The most practical way of accomplishing this is to break up the 
boulders by means of high explosives. It is obviously necessary to bring in a good supply of water, 
and this could easily be obtained from the headwaters of the stream. 

This locality, therefore, offers a fair prospect for alluvial mining, but before extensive operations 
are commenced much prospecting will be necessary. 

Sluicing operations have been carried on for some time on the lower terraces of older debris between 
the Anatoki and Waikoromumu Rivers, and the Takaka Sluicing Company is at present engaged on 
the deposits which flank the Waikoromumu. The lead exists in what was once, in all probability, the 
course of the Anatoki River, which in Pleistocene or early recent times appears to bave flowed to the 
sea along the course now occupied by the Waikoromumu River. The old channel led through what 
is now a low, broad saddle between ( me-Spec (hilly and Page Creek. The ground over which the present 
company has mining-rights comprises 195 acres, part of which had been worked in a desultory fashion 
for fifteen years before the company began operations. The wash is of a coarse, beavy nature, ami 
overlies a decomposed granite or possibly arkose. A little platinum is associated with the gold, which is 
of a coarse nature, and fairly evenly distributed throughout the wash. In value the gold averages £3 15s. 
per ounce. Over 100 ft. of boxes are used by the company, the gold being saved by special riffles, 
In order to obtain sufficient fall for the boxes, the company baa resorted to elevating. Two nozzles. 
utilising fifteen heads of water, are used in breaking down the wash. I'p to the present time -SO acres 
of wash have been worked out. In all .'i.HoO OZ. of gold have been won from this claim, and the company 

has paid £4.100 in dividends, old workings in the vicinity of One-Spec Gully, Page and Fish (reek-. 
testify to the former extent of the wash. 

Near the mouth of the Slate River a good deal of work has been carried on by the Slate River 
Sluicing Company in a terrace consisting ol gravels of the older debris, about 240ft. above the present 
level of the Slate River. The gravels rest on an irregular bottom of Aorere rocks, and, though in places 
there are small rich patches, for the most part the values are inconsiderable. The work has not 
proved remunerative, and has recently been abandoned. 

A dredge was until lately working on the Aorere River, near the mouth of the Slate River, in the 
auriferous gravels of the river-bottom. The constant Hooding of the river, however, so seriously 
hampered the work that it was discontinued. 

5 — Karameti. 





Ultra- basic Igneous Rocks 

Age and Distribution 

Basic and Semi -basic Igneous Rocks 

Age and Distribution 


Contact Phenomena 


Acidic Kocks 







Contact Phenomena 



Kconomic Possibilities of the 


Igneous Rocks 


The igneous rocks of the Parapara subdivision exhibit a wide range in chemical composition and in 
penological character. Chemically, they may be divided into three great groups — 

(1.) The ultra-basic rocks. 

(2.) The basic and semi-basic rocks. 

(3.) The acidic Tocks. 

Of these three groups the first occurs sparingly in the subdivision, the second has a wider distribution, 
while the third is the most extensive of all. The ultra-basic rocks are represented by sills and possibly 
by dykes ; the basic and semi-basic rocks occur as tuffs and agglomerates, in plugs, dykes, flows, and 
sills ; while the acidic rocks appear in dykes, and sills, and as bosses of pretentious dimensions. 

(1.) Ultra-basic Igneous Rocks. 

Age and Distribution. — The age of the ultra-basic rocks is uncertain. They are later than the 
highly metamorphic Aorere strata, in which they occur, and may be of approximately the same age 
as the basic and semi-basic group, which are apparently of Haupiri age, though there is no adequate 
proof of this supposition. 

The ultra-basic igneous rocks occur in the watersheds of the Parapara River and of Campbell 
Creek. In the Parapara watershed they outcrop in the main stream at the mouth of Dam Creek, in 
Dam Creek for some chains above the mouth, on the ridge on the western side of the Parapara near 
Dam Creek, in the main stream a few chains below the dam of the Parapara Sluicing Company 
below Richmond Flat, at a point just above Richmond Flat, and in the main stream about 
11 chains below McGregor Creek. The large boulders of ultra-basic igneous rock which occur 
a little above the mouth of the Happy Valley branch of the Parapara, indicate the neighbourhood 
of another outcrop. 

In the Campbell Creek watershed the ultra-basic rocks appear in Serpentine Creek and on the 
ridge above the Takaka Sluicing Company's claim, in both cases as inclusions in the acid igneous rocks. 
They again occur in inconspicuous exposures about 20 chains above the mouth of Contact Creek and 
in the upper waters of Campbell Creek. 

Petrology. — Petrologically, the ultra-basic igneous rocks consist of talc rocks and serpentine rocks. 
Both have apparently resulted from the alteration of some olivine rock — most proba.bly dunite, as 
judged by the presence of chromite in greater or lesser quantity. 

The talc rocks are soft, light-greenish, greyish, or whitish rocks, which are sometimes rusty on 
weathering. They consist mainly of talc, with lesser quantities of serpentine, carbonate, pyrite, 
chromite, and magnetite. They are essentially foliated rocks, and owing to the enormous shearing 
aiul compression which they have undergone have lost all resemblance to their original igneous character. 


Their alteration from dunite has consisted mainly in Education and hydration. Both phenomena may 
be the resvdt of thermal metamoiphism produced by the acid intrusions, often occurring in close 
contact with these rocks and never remotely distant from them. Talc rocks occur on the Parapara, 
near the mouth of Dam Creek, on the ridge overlooking the Takaka Sluicing Company's claim, and 

The talc rocks near the mouth of Dam Creek and on the Parapara occur at the edges of a sill about 
9 chains wide. They are distinctly schistose, light-grey in colour, and pass towards the middle of the 
sill into serpentine rocks. They are too scaly to be of commercial value, excepting possibly as a lubri- 
cant when pulverised. Along the ridge overlooking the Takaka Sluicing Company's claim, talc rocks 
occur for about 20 chains, as isolated outcrops, surrounded by acid igneous rocks. They are greyish 
iu colour, and somewhat purer and more compact than those on the Parapara. Some of the 
talc rocks of this locality might be suitable for use in the manufacture of sinks, electrical switch 
boards, &c. 

The serpentine rocks are light -greenish, or greyish rocks, consisting chiefly of serpentine, with 
minor quantities of talc, carbonate, quartz, pyrite, magnetite, chromite, and sometimes ilmenite. Viewed 
under the microscope it is evident that the serpentine is of that peculiar variety, generally the result 
of pressure, which is known as antigoritc. In places the serpentine rocks contain so much calcite that 
they become ophicalcites. The serpentine rocks occur in small quantities at several localities, but 
conspicuously only in the sill stretching from the Parapara up Dam Creek, and also in the sill appearing 
at points on the Parapara above and below Richmond Flat. In the Parapara I 1 Creek sill occur 
serpentine rocks, some of which strongly resemble dunite in the field, but beneath the microscope their 
complete serpentinizatinu i> apparent. In the sill occurring near Richmond Plat the serpentine rocks 
are somewhat schistose. The following are analyses of serpentine rocks from the Parapara watershed. 
No. 1 is from the Parapara Dam (Yeek sill, and is of an impure serpentine "O^k rnptMninB a little 
talc, while No. 2 is from the sill near Richmond Flat : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (A1,0 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe,0 3 ) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Magnesia (Mg< >) 
Chromic oxide (<'r 2 3 . . 
Titanium-oxide (Ti0 2 ) . 
Carbon-dioxide (C0 2 ) 
Potash (K,0) I 
Soda (Na 2 0) | 
Water, and loss on ignition 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 






2 96 



. . 






. . 


• • 






99-59 100-32 

Tlnse analyses point to the presence of brucite (MgOH 2 0), a mineral which is not infrequently 
present in serpentiiious rocks. 

The contact metamorphic influence exerted by the serpentine rocks has been inconsiderable, owing 
to their small extension. In the Parapara - Dam Creek sill occur inclusions of serpentine-chlorite 
schist, evidently originally sedimentary, containing large crvstals of tourmaline. In the sill occurring 
above and below Richmond Flat are similar inclusions containing corundum. A special metamorphic 
product of the serpentine rocks occurring in the same sill is the mineral chrysotile, which closely resembles 
asbestos, and indeed forme a great proportion of the "asbestos" of commerce. An analysis of the 
chrysotile gave the following results : — 


Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 


Magnesia (MgO) 

Water, and loss on ignition 






12 12 


(2.) Basic and Skmi-basic Igneous Rocks. 

Age and Distribution. — It has been mentioned that the basic; and semi-basic igneous rocks occur in 
tuffs, agglomerates, and sills, and in dykes, plugs, and lava-flows. Some of the tuffs and agglomerates 
occur, apparently, interstratified with the Haupiri rocks, and in consequence it may be reasonably 
supposed that the great period of vulcanism, during which vast quantities of volcanic ash and coarser 
debris were ejected, whilst Unas flowed out on the surface, and dykes and sills were intruded into the 
older strata, was at least partly coeval with this period of aqueous sedimentation. On the other hand, 
in the basal conglomerate of the Haupiri Series, on the Brown Cow Ridge, are pebbles of basic igneous 
rocks, a circumstance which shows that at least some manifestation of volcanic energy preceded the 
laying-down of the Haupiri rocks. Moreover, among the Aorere strata are locks which were in all likeli- 
hood originally volcanic sediments. It is probable that the igneous activity which started in Aorere 
times and was continued into Haupiri times may have taken place mainly at the close of Aorere times 
and at the beginning of the Haupiri period. 

The basic and semi-basic rocks are of wide distribution, though they occur most prominently in 
the neighbourhood of the upper waters of the Slate and Snows Rivers. So great has been the alteration 
of the basic and semi-basic igneous rocks that it is extremely difficult to determine their original 
petrographical nature, or to state definitely the form in which they were originally laid down. Two 
wide bands, containing lavas, agglomerates, tuffs, dykes, and plugs, traverse the head-waters 
of Slate and Snows Rivers, and are continued to Harris Ridge. Narrower bands, which in general 
are apparently either beds of fine volcanic debris or lava-flows, occur in Whitehorn Creek ; on the 
upper Slate River, near the mouth of Snows River ; in a small creek entering Rocky River between 
Bain Gully and Forrester Creek ; in the lower portion of Rocky River ; near the head of Higgins 
Creek ; on the Paturau River ; on the Aorere between Boulder River and Little Boulder River ; in 
Cook Creek ; in Bainham Creek, and elsewhere. 

Dykes of the basic and semi-basic igneous rocks are rare, but occur on the Slate River, a short dis- 
tance above the mouth of Kill-devil Creek, and on Snows River. What may be a wide dyke of basic 
igneous rock appears on the Pariwhakaoho just above the mouth of Flowers Creek. Intrusive sills 
of basic and semi-basic igneous rocks occur on the upper part of Rocky River, on the lower Slate River, 
and in other localities. A plug of basic igneous rock, conical in shape and completely surrounded by 
argillites, appears on the summit of the Brown Cow Ridge. 

Petrology. — The semi-basic and basic igneous rocks vary in basicity from porphyrite, analogous to 
andesite, to diabase. The exact petrographical character of the semi-basic and basic igneous rocks is 
most difficult to determine, owing to the enormous alteration which the constituent minerals have 
undergone since their formation. However, the following more or less definite species may be 
enumerated : epidote rock, porphyrite, camptonite, diabase, and gabbro. 

(1.) Epidote Rocks. — The epidote rocks, which are much the most widely spread of the semi-basic 
and basic igneous rocks, are of very varied origin, and under this general heading are grouped rocks which 
maybe tuffs, agglomerates, sills, or volcanic flows. They are characterized by a generally green colour, 
varying from light greenish-grey to yellowish -green. They are all fine-grained soft rocks, are sometimes 
rusty-weathering, and are generally massive, though in places there is a slight alignment of their con- 
stituents. This alignment is apparently due either to planes of bedding in the tuffs and agglomerates, or 
to flow-structure in the volcanics, or it may be immature schistosity. The agglomerates are distinguish- 


ibl<> macroseopically by the presence of distinct bombs, sometimes occurring in considerable quantity. 
The bombs differ but little in mineralogical character from the gronndmass. though they arc generally 
more coarse-grained. Beneath the microscope the bombs appear to merge into the matrix. Some 
of the epidotc rocks arc definitely identifiable beneath the microscope by their clastic character as 
tuffs, but more generally the secondary recrystallization is so complete that this identification is im- 
possible. Again, occasional occurrences of microfelsitic base seem to indicate that the locks in which 
this feature is to be observed are true volcauics. It must be confessed, however, that these definitely 
ascertained volcauics are very rare indeed. Epidotc nicks, which occur as definite sills, arc ah?0 rare, 
but apparently appear on Snows River and elsewhere. The number of epidotc rocks which may he 
certainly classed as cither volcanios, agglomerates, tuffs, or sill-rocks, is very limited, and of the majority 
all that can be said is that they are of igneous origin. 

Beneath the microscope the most characteristic mineral of the epidote rocks is, naturally, epidote, 
and with it are associated, in greater ot Less quantity, all or some of the following minerals : Zoisite, 
biotite, serieite. chlorite. uralite(?), one or more carbonates, plagioclase, quartz, magnetite, ilmenite, 
leucoxene, limonite, and pyrite. The plagioclase apparently varies m basicity from andesinc to labra- 
dorite. The mineral is seldom fresh but is generally more or less Baussuritized. Leucoxene som< times 
surrounds cores of ilmenite, <>l which it is evidently a metamorphic product. Sometimes the carbonates 
are as important mineral constituents as epidote, when the rock becomes an epidote-carbonate ro< k. 
Qeodes entirely failed with carbonate are common in many of the epidote rocks. Epidote rocks, 
apparently recrvstallizcd tuffs, occur at various points on the upper Shit" [liver, on Snows River, mi 
the lower Rocky River, and on the \"i ere River. Epidote rocks which arc altered agglomerates are 

to be seen at several points on the upper Slat.' River, in the middle pail ot Snows River, and on the 
Aop'ie River. Of doubtful igneous origin arc the epidote rocks exposed in Kill-devil Creek, m White- 
horn Creek, on the upper Slate River, on Snows River, on the Little Boulder River, in Granl Creek, 
on the Paturau and its tributaries, and elsewhere. The epidote rocks « ire evidently origin ally rocks 
rich in plagioclase, and in either augite or hornblende. 

(2.) Porphi/rites.— Under the name " porphyrite " arc grouped rocks of widely different texture. They 
all contain phenocrysts, but the groundmase may be either exceedingly tin --grained an! microfelsitic, 
or of the coarseness and general appearance of diabase. The phenooryste are of plagioclase, horn- 
blende, augite. ami the parauiorph after .mgite — uralite. The gronndmass always contains plagioclase, 
more or less alt red, ami miv or all of the following original minerals : hornblende, augite, magnetite, 
ilmenite, pyrite, apatite; and of seoondary minerals— -carbonates, epidote, zoisite, uralite, Bcrpentinc, 
quartz, leucoxene. and limonite. I'ralitization and epidotization arc the mosl common metasomati< 
changes which have occurred within the pozphyiites. 

Several distinct types of porphyrit* may be distinguished. [Jralite-porphyrite consists of a 
groundmase of medium coarseness containing plagioclase. epidote. uralite, and chlorite, with pheno- 
crysts of uralite. This was originally an augite-porphyrite. It occurs near tie' head <>f Rocky River. 
Much decomposed rocks of doubtful character, which are apparently uralite-pprphyrite, are to be 
seen on the Paturau River and on Snows River. 

Hornblende-porphyrite differs from nralite-porphyrite m that the principal phenocrysts are ol 
original hornblende, instead of uralite. Sometimes the groundmass of the hornblende-porphyrite 
is exceedingly tine-grained and is practically microfelsitic. Hornblende-porphyrite containing pheno- 
crysts of both hornblende and plagioclase, the latter much less prominent than the former, occurs on 
the Slate River a few miles above its mouth. This rock is practically a camptonite. A much-alt. nil 
rock, probably a hornblende-porphyrite, is to be seen in the lower wide band of basic and semi-basic 
igneous rocks on the Snows River. 

A single example of a true augite-porphyrite was observed in Bainham (reck. The rock is light 
greyish gTeen in colour, and exhibits a fine-grained lithoidal matrix in which occur phenocrysts of 
both plagioclase and augite. The finely crystalline matrix is altered to epidote and zoisite. with the 
development also of silica and other secondary products. The augite pheni re generally fresh. 

though the plagioclases have been somewhat replaced by silica. This rock is an altered volcanic, and 
was probably originally an augite-andesite. A remarkable form of porphyrite is one in which the 


ferro-magnesian minerals ar.j almost absent, having been removed most probably during the process 
of alteration which the rock has undergone. Now the rock consists almost entirely of plagioclase, v. ith 
very minor amounts of sericite, epidote, and chlorite. The groundmass is microfelsitic and in it are 
inserted the occasional pheuocrysts of plagioclase. This rock was probably originally an andesite. 
Porphyrites of this character are almost white in colour and closely resemble felsite in physical 
character. They occur on the Hardy Ridge, a short distance north from Slate River Peak. 

(3.) Diabases. — -The diabases are medium-grained noncrystalline rocks, often of rusty outcrop. 
Nearly all the rocks of this nature occurring in the Parapara subdivision are so much altered that 
they may probably be more correctly classified as epidiorites. They now contain but little original 
material, this including altered augite, plagioclase, ilmenite, and magnetite, with which are associated 
the secondary minerals, zoisite, epidote, calcite, leucoxene, and limonite. Altered diabases occur in 
Mackenzie Creek, in the upper part of Rocky River, and on the Brown Cow Ridge. 

(4). Gabbros. —The gabbros are more coarsely grained rocks than the diabases, and do not generally 
show the ophitic (or diabasic) structure so characteristic of the latter rocks. They contain the same 
minerals as the diabases, and, in addition, apatite. Gabbros occur in Serpentine and Whitehorn Creeks. 

It has been mentioned on page 42 that some of the amphibolites are very probably of igneous 
origin, and not metamorphosed sedimentaries. Amphibolites, which are apparently very much squeezed 
diorites or gabbros, occur in Turnbull Creek, and on the Pariwhakaoho just above the mouth of Flowers 

Contact Phenomena. — All the semi-basic and basic igneous rocks are more or less epidotized. In 
places pyrite is extensively developed within the igneous rocks, especially on the Slate Riven Epidoti- 
zation and pyritization are the most common of the contact phenomena exercised by the basic and semi- 
basic igneous rocks on the sedimentaries. In fact nearly all the lattei occuning in contact with the 
semi-basic and basic rocks contain epidote, and to this mineral ard to the allied one, zoisite, is due the 
prevailing light green-greyish colour, which renders the water-laid sediments difficult of distinction from 
rocks of volcanic origin. Among other schists, which apparently owe their peculiar character to the 
influence of the basic and semi-basic rocks, may be mentioned epidote-magnetite schist, appearing in 
Bain Gull; ; epidote-biotite schist, with an epidote-zoisite-biotite-quartz groundmass, and with large 
id'omorphic individuals of biotite embedded, occurring on tbe Slate River, a short distance above the 
mouth of Snows River ; epidote-chlorite-carbonate schist, with clastic quaitz, &c, in an epidote-chlorite- 
carbonafce matrix from Rocky Rivei above Mackenzie Creek; sericite-tourmaline schist, with a matrix 
consisting chiefly of sericite, quartz, and magnetite, in which are set the many automorphic indivi- 
duals of tourmaline. Sericite-tourmaline schist occurs on Hardy Ridge, between Snows River and 
Slate River, in close proximity to the basic and semi-basic rocks, and what is apparently the same rock 
is to be seen on the eastern slope of Walker Ridge and elsewhere. 

(3.) Acidic Rocks. 

Distribution. — The acid igneous locks, as already remarked, are much the most widely distributed of 
all the igneous rocks of the Parapara subdivision. As seer to-da) they are entirely intcusive and are 
represented by bosses, sills, and dykes. The acid igneous rocks occupy thre? large a^eas within the 
Parapara subdivision, as well as many minor areas. The three large areas will be designated as the 
Pikikiruna Boss, the Lead Hill Boss, and the Onahau Boss. The Pikikiruna Boss, like the Lead Hill 
Boss, is only partly within the limits of the Parapara subdivision, and has been regarded by Professor 
James Park, whose observations extended beyond the Paiapara subdivision, as probably an ancient 
metamorphic granite.* The authors of the present Bulletin find this view inapplicable to the area which 
they have examined, for reasons which will be stated in detail later on in this chapter. The western 
portion of the Pikikiruna Boss occupies the eastern part of the Waitapu Survey District, and has a 
surface-area within the Parapara subdivision of 5"39 square miles. The Onahau Boss extends from the 
Puremahaia Creek to the Waikoromumu, and has a surface-area of 7*15 square miles, while the Lead 

* Geol. Rep. No. 20, 1890, p. 231. 


Hill Boss stretches from Boulder Lake to Mac Creek, and has a surface-area within the subdivision of 
8"1 square miles. Sills and dykes occur in many places, especially on the borders of the large bosses. 
Sills are much more common than dykes, the molten magma being more easily intruded from the base of 
the compressed folds along the planes of stratification than across them. Sills of acid igneous rocks 
arc to be seen at several places along Walker Ridge, below the great bend of the upper Slate River, 
on the Aorere River, near the mouth of Basin Creek, and elsewhere. Dykes of the acid igneous rocks 
appeal near Boulder Lake, on the edge of the Lead Hill Boss, and elsewhere. Professor Cox records 
granite as occurring at the head of Independent Creek, a branch of the Anatori.* 

Age. —The acid igneous rocks intrude the Aorere strata in many places, and are undoubtedly Post- 
Aorere in age. In the Haupiri conglomerates at several places, such as on the Paxapara Peak and 
Light band Gully, arc pebbles of a rock which originated fiom the erosion of an undoubted acid igneous 
rock. These pebbles consist chiefly of quartz and feldspar with a little sericite. and arc more siliceous than 
the generality of the acid igneous rocks. Since the Haupiri conglomerate contains pebbles of some acid 
igneous rocks, it would seem natural to suppose that the intrusions of the whole complex preceded the 
deposition of the Haupiri strata. However, the authors of the present Bulletin, notwithstanding this 
fact, tentatively think that they were intruded after the deposition of the Haupiri rocks, and for these 
two reasons : (1.) The Haupiri rocks are all sheared, and are generally very much metamorphosed ; 
the acid igneous rocks are generally fairly massive. The gneissoid phases of the acid igneous rocks 
occurring on the Waikoromumu, on Kitty Creek, and elsewhere, may represent rocks which 
underwent especial shearing, or possibly they may be more ancient acid igneous rocks than the 
main complex in which they occur, and may be those from which the acid igneous pebbles in the Hau- 
piri conglomerate were obtained. It is again possible that the generally massive acid igneous rocks 
which we see to-day represent a recrystallization or regrauitization of the more ancient acid rocks. 
At present this matter must be considered hypothetical. (2.) The hornblendic and biotitic phases of 
the acid igneous rocks, of which they form a great proportion, are lacking, as already remarked, in 
the Haupiri conglomerate. 

Owing to the fact that the conglomerates at the base of the Miocene Series contain, in most parts 
of the area, no acid igneous pebbles, it might be supposed that the acid igneous rocks were intruded 
since Miocene times, but it is more probable that during that period most of these rock were 
covered by Aorere or Haupiri strata. Moreover, in the western part of the Para para subdivision, 
abundant debris derived from the acid igneous rocks occurs at the base of the, coal-bearing series. 

Petrology. — The acid igneous rocks consist of muscovite-granite, granite, granitite, pegmatite, 
syenite, and porphyry. In them are included, in the Pikikiruna Boss, certain much more basic rocks, 
considered a special product of thermal metamorphism, which will be discussed later. 

(1.) Muscovite Granites. — The muscovite granites, which are generally whitish in colour, and consist 
essentially of quartz, orthoclase, and muscovite, with more or less acid plagioclase and microperthite, 
are rare in the Parapara subdivision, and are limited chiefly to a very few narrow dykes or sills close 
to the largest bosses. As they are mostly of tine grain, they are practically aplites. They occur in 
Contact Creek, on the Dry River, and elsewhere. 

(2.) Granites. ^The true grauites differ from the muscovite-granites in that they contain both 
muscovite and biotite, in almost equal ^proportions, in addition to quartz and the feldspars. _jTrue 
granites are widely distributed in the' ( Parapara subdivision, though not so much so as are the 
granititee. The true granites may be seen typically in both branches ot the Onahau River, in 
Contact Creek, in Campbell Creek, on the Boulder River, and elsewhere. In the true granites a 
porphyritic phase is very common, large phenocrysts of orthoclase, showing Carlsbad twinning, and 
of oligoclase, being conspicuous even megascopically. The true granites are sometimes handsome, 
massive rocks, varying in colour from very light-grey to pink. 

(3.) Pegmatites. — The pegmatites are very uncommon in the Parapara subdivision, and are limited 
to a very few localities, where they appear in the finer-grained acid igneous rocks as narrow veins, 
distinctly suggesting an aqueo-igneous origin. In Campbell Creek, where they are well represented, 
they contain a great deal of red garnet, in addition to quartz, muscovite, and the feldspars. 

* GeoL Rep., No. 15, 1883, p. 04. 


(4.) Granitites. — The granitites differ from the true granites in having biotite either the sole mica 
present, or at least predominant. The granitites are widely distributed in the Parapara subdivision. 
and form some of the most beautiful rocks of the acid igneous complex. They vary in colour from 
light-grey to dark-grey and pink. The granitites outcrop on the co: -t line near the Tata Islands, in 
Peter Creek, on Lead Hill, on Boulder Kiver. on the Dry River, and elsewhere. A phase of the 
granitite which is rich in hornblende, and may be spoken of as a hornblende-granitite, occurs on the 
headland north of Ligar Bay. and represents a transition rock between the ja-anitites and the syenites. 

(5.) Syenites. -The syenites, which consist essentially of orthoclase and hornblende, contain, in 
addition, much plajiioclase (oligoclase). magnetite, apatite, and always some biotite. Thev occur 
principally in the Pikikiruna Boss, where they are probably allied to the diorites, which are a 
special metamorphic product of the acid igneous intrusion, and will be described later. In places a 
porphvritic phase of the syenites is conspicuous. A syenite from the road crossing the upper part of 
Kitty Creek shows large phenocrysts of hornblende. 

(6.) Porphyries. — An interesting phase of the acid igneous rocks is that exhibited by the porphyries. 
Nearly all the acid igneous rocks, muscovite-granites. true granites, granitites, and syenites are in 
many places porphvritic : but the true porphyrites, or those in which there is a finely crystalline 
groundmass, and in which the phenocivsts are decidedly conspicuous, are limited to narrow intrusive 
sheets widely spread throughout the subdivision. The matrix of the porphyries consists of quartz, 
indistinguishable feldspars, sericite, muscovite. biotite, and sometimes apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, 
and the secondary minerals — chlorite, epidote, limonite, and leucoxene. The chlorite, wherever 
occurring, is apparently an alteration product of amphibole, probably hornblende. The most 
common of the phenocrysts is oligoclase, orthoclase is less common, while quartz is distinctly rare. 
The porphyries may be exactly styled as oligoclase-orthoclase porphyries. They occur on the lower 
Parapara. on Slate River, near the mouth of Whitehorn Creek, and again some miles lower down, 
in Bassett Gully, and elsewhere. 

As abeady remarked, some of the acid igneous rocks are decidedly gneissoid. and nearly all of them 
show more or less markedly the effects of strain, as evidenced by the undulatory extinction of the 
quartzes, and by the bending of the albite twinning-planes in the oligoclase, and of the cleavage-planes 
in the mica plates. The very gneissoid phases show comminution of the quartzes and granulation 
of the feldspars with the development of a halo of secondary minerals around the cores of original 
material, and exhibit, as well, other dynamic and chemical changes. Pinkish gneiss occurs at the head 
of Winter Creek, on the Dry River, and in Peter Creek. In all of these localities it is apparently the 
result of the extreme metamorphism of the acid igneous rock near the edge of the Pikikiruna Boss. 
The basic granite, in which occurs the silver-ore of Richmond Hill, is sometimes very gneissoid. 

Weathering. — The acid igneous rocks are m places enormously weathered. Their decomposition 
is especially marked in the Onahau Boss, where feldspathic sands, derived from the denudation of the 
granite there occurring, clothe the surface, often to a thickness of many feet. The surface is also in 
places strewn with large rounded boulders, which are apparently the result of spheroidal weathering. 
Where glacial activity has been pronounced the covering of decomposed granite overlying the sobd 
rock is not very apparent, or is altogether lacking. On the slopes of Lead Hill, in ascending from 
Boulder Lake, one passes from smoothed and polished slopes on to higher reaches covered in places 
with granite talus, and again with patches of feldspathic sands derived from the decay of the granite. 
The lower slopes were ice-swept during glacial times, while at the same period the higher reaches rose 
as nunataks above the ice. 

Contact Phenomena. — Owing to the large area occupied by the acid igneous rocks, their meta- 
morphic influence has been most j^rofound, and the schists, which are the product of thermal 
metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism, are most interesting and varied. These 
naturally differ greatly, depending on the lithological character of the intruded rock. In general, it 
may be said that the principal metamorphic phenomena are silication and mication. Along most 
of the smaller sills highly micaceous schists or hard quartzose rocks are to be seen. The meta- 
morphism produced by contact with acid igneous rocks is more conspicuous in the western and 
central part of the subdivision than in the eastern part, where the effects of regional metamorphism are 


much more marked than elsewhere. Andalusite-mica schists occur on Boulder Lake, in one of the 
tributaries of Clark River, and elsewhere, apparently as special products of contact metamorphism. 
Within the Onahau Boss occurs an area of altered ultra-basic igneous rocks, most of which are 
compact fine-grained tale rocks. In Serpentine Creek, however, occurs a very coarse-grained rock. 
which apparently owes its peculiar character to the proximity of the acid igneous material. These 
coarse-grained rocks are of small outcrop, and consist of altered pyroxene, serpentine, carbonate. 
and talc. 

Very interesting and remarkable are the contact phenomena on the edge of the greal l'ikikiruna 
Boss. In this locality crystalline complex carbonates have been intruded by the acid igneous complex. 
The crystalline carbonates have been altered to epidote cherts, while in places, apparently by assimila- 
tion of the complex carbonate by the granites, basic igneous rocks have been produced within the boss 
itself. In the typical section as we pass from the ordinary crystalline carbonate towards the centre of 
the boss we traverse first, ailicined and often pyritized carbonates, then epidotic cherts, then occasion- 
ally amphibolites, then basic igneous rocks, then ordinary granites. In places, however, the ordinary 
crystalline carbonate abuts directly against the basic igneous rocks. a nd elsewhere against syenite, or 
the ordinary granite, while basic inclusions, distinctly igneous in texture, may occur well within the 
boss, and mica schists or amphibolites, which are evidently altered sedimentaries, may occasional!) 
occupy a similar position. 

The epidotic cherts consist almost entirely of epidote (with zoisite) and quartz, with small quantities 
of limonite. When the rock is examined microscopically, quartz, -ecu to occur in a tine mosaic, is 
generally the prevailing mineral, sometimes to the complete exclusion of epidote. The epidote cherts 
are in places much brecciated. Tin- brecciatLoa undoubtedly happened alter the siheation of the 
carbonates had occurred. In places, a- stated on page 39, the carbonate- contain siliceous areas 
which resemble waterworn quartzose pebbles, bul winch arc m reality >i Becondarj origin, being 
produced from carbonates, with siliceous lenses, the result of partial silication. The epidotic cherts 
are apparently the result of alteration by hot siliceous waters, acting either at the time of 
the intrusion of the igneous rocks or following that event. This intrusion may have been realh 
a process of recrystallization of pre-existing acid igneous rocks, as already explained, and there- 
fore not an intrusion at all in the ordinary sense of the term. The basic igneous rocks 
occurring within and at the edge of the l'ikikiruna Boss an' generally coarse-grained, and some 
are very much so. When examined beneath the microscope they an- apparently generally verj 
highly hornblendic diorites, consisting of original hornblende, plagioclase, magnetite, pyrite, 
and zircon, with secondary chlorite, epidote. carbonate, and limonite. Quartz is either lacking or 
is inconspicuous. Probably more basic rock- than diorite are also present. The diorites would 

be considered semi-basic, were it not for the fact that hornblende is present m such great quantity. 
These basic igneous rocks may be the product of magmatic differentiation, but the authors 
of the present Bulletin consider that it is more likely that they an' really the result of the digestion 
of crystalline complex carbonate by an acid magma. The basic igneous rocks occurring on the edge 
of the Pikikiruna Boss were probably formed by the assimilation of carbonate in situ, while the areas 
of the same material within the boss represent portions of carbonate caught up and digested by the 

magma. The reasons for preferring the assimilation to the differentiation tl ry, as an explanation 

of the occurrence of basic igneous rocks within the acid igneous complex of tic l'ikikiruna Boss, may 
he enumerated : — 

(I.) In only one place in the Parapara subdivision do tin' carbonates come in contact with a large 
area of the acid igneous complex — namely, in the l'ikikiruna Boss, and only in that Locality are basic 
igneous rocks produced. 

(■_'.) If th ■ basic igneous rocks are tin- result of magmatic differentiation, why do they not occur 
in the other areas covered by the acid igneous rocks ? 

(3.) The basic igneous rocks occur in small areas with most irregular boundaries, and are hence 
of the same age as the acid igneous rocks. The syenites, the most basic of the acid igneous rocks, 
occur in large quantity only in the Pikikiruna Boss, and may represent a slight assimilation of 


Economic Possibilities of the Igneous Rocks. 

All the acid igneous rocks are much jointed, sometimes irregularly, so as greatly to detract from 
their value for building purposes. However, in places where the jointing-planes are regular, or fairly 
so. granite of high quality, eminently suitable for structural or ornamental use, occurs. Much of the 
granite on the north-western slopes of Lead Hill, and in the Boulder River, is especially fine, being 
compact, massive, and light-grey in colour. The oligoclase-orthoclase porphyry occurring in Wash- 
bourn Block has been utilised for the preparation of polishing-powders. 






75 Minor Occurrences of Ore 

.. 86 

75 (Men Gyle 

.. 86 

. 76 Fletcher Creek 


79 Track from liainham to the Castle.- . . 

.. »'6 

82 Vppo'a Gully and Appo'a Plat 


83 Copperstain Creek 

.. 87 

86 Miscellaneous Occurrences 

.. S7 

Utilisation of the Iron-ores 

.. ST 


Quality of the Ore . 
Origin of the Ore 
Washbourn Block 
Tukurua Block 
Onakaka Block 
Pariwhakaoho Area 

The Parapara iron-ore deposits are at once of vast economic value and of great scientific interest. 
All of the large deposits are intimately associated with the ancient complex crystalline carbonates 
of the Aorere Series. By far the most important of the iron-ore bodies occur on the complex carbonate 
belt stretching irregularly southward from Parapara Inlet along the Onakaka Ridge to and beyond the 
southern limits of the subdivision. Along this belt there are four distinct deposits. The largest and 
most northerly deposit is that occurring in the valley of Washbourn Creek, between Parapara Inlet on the 
north -and Tukurua Stream on the south, in the area which the authors have called Washbourn Block. 
The second deposit is that situated between the Tukurua Stream on the north and the Onakaka on the 
south, in the area known as Tukurua Hlock. The third deposit appears on the Onakaka Ridge, between 
the Onakaka River and the Pariwhakaoho Stream, in the area designated the Onakaka Block ; while the 
fourth and much the smallest deposit of the four appears on the rugged country south of the Pariwhaka- 
oho. Washbourn, Tukurua, and Onakaka Blocks were specially demarcated for the purpose of studying 
in detail the iron-deposits contained in each. The two most northerly represent areas one mile and 
a half square, while the Onakaka Hlock is two miles from north to south and one mile and a half 
from east to west. In addition to the four iron-ore deposits just mentioned there are several small 
and unimportant deposits occurring in the old Glen Gyle Sluicing Claim, in Fletcher ('reek, on the 
track from Bainham to the Castles, and elsewhere 

Quality of the Ore. 

The ore of the Parapara iron-deposits is always hydrous iron-oxide, varying greatly in chemical 
purity from one ore-body to another, and within the limits'of each ore-body. Mineralogically the 
ore is generally limonite, corresponding to the formula 2Fe 2 3 -3H 2 0, and containing when pure, 
59 8 per cent, of metallic iron, but some of it is gothite, which has the formula Fe 2 ,11,0, and contains 
62-9 per cent, of metallic iron. Turgite, which has the formula 2Fe 1 1 *H 1 0, and contains 66*2 per 
cent, of iron, occasionally occurs. The limonite occurs sometimes compact and massive, sometimes 
spongv and porous, again botryoidaL. and rarely earthy and OchreoUB. Tn colour it varies from yellow 
ochre to light-brown, dark-brown, and deep-purplisl brown. Occasionally the limonite when botryoidal 
or mammillary has a nearly black, brilliant, glossy exterior, due apparently to a thin coating of manga- 
nese oxide. The less common form of hydrous iron-oxide, gothite, occurs generally as a lining to 
cavities in the more abundant limonite. It is massive or reniform in character, often with radiated 
structure, and in colour is generally reddish or yellowish. A brilliant carmine colour occasionally 
observed is probably to be referred to turgite. 

All the iron-ore is enormously shattered, and consists generally of fragments of every size and 
shape, sometimes cemented solidly together, again incoherent or loosely coherent. Many of the larger 
chunks of ore are highly cavernous, and exhibit numerous " pots," sometimes empty, again containing 

earthy matter, and more rarely either pyritous matter or selenite (CaS0 4 "2H 2 0), the latter in long 
colourless crystals jutting from the walls of the cavities into the open spaces. The ores may be divided 
into (I) ores formed by replacement oi a pre-existing carbonate rock, or deposited directly from solu- 
tion, and (2) conglomerate ores which have been formed by erosion of the replacement ores. 

The purity of the first class of ore depends absolutely on the character of the replaced rock. If 
,i pure crystalline carbonate, the ore is likely to be a high-grade limonite or much less frequently gothite ; 
if a micaceous carbonate, tin' ore is sure to be micaceous ; and if a quartzose carbonate the ore is also 
lean and quartzose. Much of the replaced ore is exceedingly high grade, ranging up to 58 per cent, in 
metallic iron. It is seldom, however, of Bessemer quality, as the impurities, sulphur and phosphorus, 
though not in alarmingly large quantities considering the percentage of iron, are above the amounts 
allowable to admit of this qualification. Silica is the most common impurity in the high-grade rep'aced 
ore. and occurs as quartz, sometimes in rounded forms resembling water-worn pebbles, but which are 
probably unreplaced lensoids of quartz present in the original rock. Some of the silica, as will be ex- 
plained later, is probably of secondary introduction. The other impurities in the replaced ore, in 
addition to silica, phosphorus, and sulphur, are generally in small quantities. They consist of manganous 
oxide, titanium-oxide, alumina, lime, and magnesia. From a metallurgical standpoint the most im- 
portant of these is the oxide of titanium, owing to the refractory nature of that substance in the manu- 
facture of pig iron. However, in the Parapara iron-ores it never occurs in harmful quantities. Ores 
deposited directly from solution are rare, but are generallv of very high grade. 

The conglomerate ores contain pebbles, chiefly of quartzite, grauwacke, and quartz, embedded 
in a ferruginous matrix which often consists of high-grade ore, but sometimes contains large 
quantities of argillaceous and arenaceous impurities. The value of the conglomerate ore is much 
less than that of the replaced ore, owing to the number of cobbles contained, which would necessitate 
hand-picking, even for those conglomerates with a high-grade ferriferous cement. The quality of the 
Parapara iron-ore in particular areas will be discussed in detail when the special areas where the ore 
occurs are considered. 

Origin of the Ore. 

The origin of the Parapara iron-ore deposits has been discussed by various geologists who Lave 
examined this field. Professor Cox considers that the large deposits appearing near Parapara Inlet 
and stretching southward therefrom aie the gossan of a large pyrite lode.* Professor Park attributes 
an alluvial origin to the iron-ore, remarking that this " is clearly demonstrated by the character of 
the material composing it."y The writers of this Bulletin, after very careful study of the large deposits 
in Washbourn, Tukurua, and Onakaka Blocks, as well as of the smaller deposits, feel inclined to claim 
in general a rather more complex mode of origin for all the large deposits and for most of the smaller 
occurrences. The mode of origin of the deposits on the complex carbonate-belt between Parapara 
Inlet and the head of the Pariwhakaoho Stream and of the minor deposits may now be discussed. 

The Larger Deposits. — It has been mentioned that the iron-ore deposits in Washbourn Block, 
Tukurua Block, Onakaka Block, and in the rugged country south of the Pariwhakaoho, are all in 
intimate connection with a band of complex carbonate. This band consists structurally of a complex 
anticline much eroded along its crest. This anticline pitches southward from Parapara Inlet, but 
northward from the Onakaka Block, the bottom of the transverse syncline being apparently in the 
northern part of the Ngarino Ridge, where, as is naturally to be expected, there is a decided narrowing 
in the carbonate band. It is noteworthy that near this point of attenuation the iron-ore either pinches 
out altogether or is represented by a very inconsiderable body. It is well known that the crests of 
anticlines are more subject to rapid erosion than any other part of the fold. Thus, early in the geological 
history of the Parapara subdivision erosion had worn a depression along the crown of the arch and had 
cut through the overlying quartzites and schists into the complex carbonate. It is uncertain whether 
the complex carbonates originally contained ferrous carbonate as one of their constituents or not, 
though analyses made of these rocks now show that this compound (FeC0 3 ) is often present in greater 

* Geol. Rep., No. 13, 1881, p. 3 ; No. 14. 1882, p. 46. j Geol. Rep., No. 20, 1890, p. 240. 


ii( ai;tz and Limonite Rock, derived prom \ Crystalline Complex Carbonate by Ferration and 

Silk a i ton. 

Photographed in ordinary light. Magnification, about 20 diameters. Work of Mr. Alexander McKay, F.G.S. 

Geo. Bulletin No. .;.] 


or less quantity. If ferrous carbonate were originally present it would on exposure to the weather be 
oxidized to ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ), and a nucleus of an ore-body would be formed. However, this 
portion of the ore-body, if present at all. is probably very small, and the main bod}' ma}* be 
considered to be of secondary derivation from pvrite (FeS 2 ) which is abundant as a mineral con- 
stituent in all the old rocks, more especially in the quartzites and schists, and is also common in the 
quartz lenses occurring in great numbers in the schists. It is also very general in the quartzose 
conglomerate which is found at the base of the Oamaru Series, and represents the decay of the older 
pyrite-bearing terrains. This pyritous quartzose conglomerate now occupies considerable areas in the 
northern portion of the depression along the crest of the anticline, and formerly extended much 
further southward, as shown by remnants of the formation seen at intervals along the Ngarino 
Ridge. The source of the pvrite may then be considered to be partly in the quartzitc and schists 
bordering and overlying the carbonate, and partly in the quartzose conglomerate derived therefrom. 
On exposure to the atmosphere the pvrite is oxidized to free sulphuric acid and ferrous sulphate. 
Both react upon the calcium carbonate presenl in predominating quantity in the complex carbonate, 
resulting in the formation in each case of calcium sulphate, which, in the presence of water, yields gyp- 
sum. In addition to this formation of calcium sulphate, the reaction of the ferrous sulphate on the 
calcium carbonate results also in the formation of EeiXOUS carbonate. The latter reaction takes place 
owing to the greater affinity of sulphuric acid for lime than for iron. These reactions may he shown 
by the following equations : — 

II 30 4 • I aCO a -- CaS0 4 + H a + CO,. 
r?eS0 4 + CaCOj = Ca80< + FeC0 3 

Similarly, reactions might take place between MgCO, and FeS0 4 , ;^ tin- former is generally present 
in the complex carbonate. This reaction may be shown by the following equation : 

KeSo, + MgCO j MgSO< + FeCO 

The oxidation of the ferrous carbonate formed as above yields the limonite o\ the ore-bodies. This 
reaction may be shown bv the following equation: — 

MVCO3 + 3H 2 <> + 0, - 2Fe t O,-3H a O + 4f0 2 . 

The more or less soluble sulphates which acoompanythe formation of the ferrous carbonate have 
mostly disappeared. Magnesium sulphate present would, on account of its great solubility, be quickly 

removed bv dissolution. Gypsum, the hydrous calcium sulphate, a Bomewhat soluble compound, 
would be for the most part also lemoved in solution. Small portions of it. however, are still found 
in the crystalline form. selenite, inside the frequenl '" pots"' in the limonite. 

Ferrous carbonate i.s not often found in great quantity at the surface in the crystalline carbonates, 
owing to the very ready oxidation of that compound on exposure to the atmosphere. Dnweathered 
specimens of complex carbonate, however, nearly always show a small proportion of ferrous carbonate, 

and sometime- a considerable amount. In many places the transition from unaltered carbonate to 
limonite is observable in the field, as in the upper part of (den Mutchkin. in the No. I lice, and on the 
banks of the Tukurua and Onakaka Streams. This phenomenon is also frequently noticeable beneath 
the microscope. 

The origin of most of the iron- ores through the agency of the complex carbonates is well shown 
bv the impurities which both contain — titanium-oxide (Ti() 2 ). manganous oxide (M11O). and alumina 
(A1 2 3 ) being present in the complex carbonate and in the iron-ores derived therefrom. A still further 
proof of this mode of derivation of most of the iron-ores may be observed in the marked resemblance 
between their physical appearance and that of some of the carbonate. Much of the latter is enormously 
shattered, and is represented bv many fragments of rock in a rusty argillaceous matrix. Similarly, 
the iron-ore consists mainly of many fragments of very irregular shapes, held loosely together by a 
ferruginous matrix, which is often somewhat argillaceous. In places. rusjty-coloured clay bands occur 
in the ore. These probably represent original schistose layers, the minerals of which were not all 
replaceable by ferrous carbonate. The cavernous nature of the iron-ore is explained bv the great loss 
of volume which the rock has suffered in the change from complex carbonate. 


It is probable Hint much of the ferrous salt was carried in solution beyond the boundaries of 
the original complex crystalline carbonate, either as sulphate or carbonate, there oxidized to ferric 
oxide, and deposited as liinonite. This may account for the small deposits of iron-ore surmounting 
the schists away from the complex carbonates and formed not through the medium of the complex 
carbonate, but by direct precipitation from solution. 

It has been mentioned that the iron-ore was originally formed in a depression along an eroded 
anticline. The ores produced a solid cap, in this way rendering the country covered by them less 
liable to decay than the bordering areas underlain by schists and quartzites. Thus, in places 
the iron-ore country stands at greater altitude than that immediately adjoining. Consequently, 
some of the iron-ore has gradually descended by gravity, and the iron-ore talus thus formed 
has produced small ore-bodies, surmounting or partly surmounting rocks other than crystalline 
complex carbonates. 

.Much of the iron-ore found in small areas in connection with the crystalline complex carbonate 
is highly siliceous, more so apparently than is explicable by the supposition that it is merely a direct 
alteration of carbonate after previous ferration of that rock. It seems very probable that silication 
of the complex carbonates was also proceeding at the same time as ferration, though the latter probably 
was a surface metasomatic process, while the former occurred mainly in depth. All the rocks over- 
lying the complex carbonate are rich in silica. The solvent of the silica in the present instance is not 
known, though one might be hypothecated in the alkaline carbonate derived by carbonation of the 
alkaline silicates present in some slight degree in strata above the complex carbonates. Hence may 
be explained the highly siliceous iron-ores sometimes found immediately resting on complex carbonate, 
and formed originally at some depth from the old surface at the junction of the zone of ferration and 
silication (Plate XXII). In the same way may be explained the highly siliceous rocks — siliceous carbon- 
ates, carbonatic cherts, and cherty quartzites — found in places at considerable depth from the original 
surface, and now exposed by long-continued erosion. The siliceous carbonates and carbonatic cherts 
may have been originally pure carbonates, while the cherty quartzites were probably carbonates high 
in clastic quartz. All of these rocks are in places associated with the iron-ores. 

The following analyses show graphically the connection between the carbonates and the iron-ores. 
Xo. 1 is of a rock still containing a considerable percentage of calcium carbonate. The percentage of 
alumina is much higher than that in any complex carbonate. This increase in percentage is due to 
the removal by dissolution of most of the carbonates and their replacement by iron-oxide and silica, 
while the alumina remains unchanged. Xo. 2 is the analysis of a rock in which the processes of 
silication and ferration have proceeded further than in Xo. 1. 

Xo. 1. Altered carbonate from south side of road leading to Mr. Basset's house from 

Parapara Hall, Washbourn Block. 
Xo. 2. Lean iron-ore from same locality as Xo. 1, Washbourn Block. 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) .... 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide 'MnO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Titanium-oxide (Ti0 2 ).. 
Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 
Water and organic matte 
Alkalies and loss ... 

100-00 99-87 

Xo. 1. 

No. ■>. 








, . 
















^. "^- -r 


As will be seen by a perusal of this short disquisition on the origin of the Parapara iron-ores, the 
process by which they have been formed is a decidedly complex one, but it is mainly a surface pheno- 
menon. Hence it is not to be expected that the rich iron-ores will go to a very gTeat depth, and it is 
very probable that the high-grade ores occurring on the surface will give place to lean siliceous ores, 
and still lower down to siliceous carbonates or cherty rocks. It is noteworthy in this connection that, 
in the various streams cutting transversely across the carbonate belt carrying the iron-ores and deeply 
dissecting it, iron-ore does not appear in situ except on the Tukurua. The Onakaka and Pariwhaka- 
oho show only carbonates, often siliceous, while the very small amount of ore on the Tukurua is low- 
grade and ochreous, and appears in connection with rusty cherty rocks. All the other streams, however, 
show large quantities of ore erratics, evidently derived from the wearing-away by mechanical erosion 
of the ore-bodies on the hills to the north and south. The lower part of Washbourn Creek, which cuts 
longitudinally through the ore-body in Washbourn Block, shows abundant exposures of iron-ore, but the 
locality is near the sea-level, and the dissection of the stream to base level is not great, and consequently 
the rocks underlying the ore here are not exhibited to view. Judging from the analogy of limonites 
occurring with carbonate rocks in other parts of tin- world, it may reasonably be expected that the 
bottom of the iron-ore will be an extremely irregular surface. 

The Minor Deposits. — Various minor points in connection with the origin of the several small 
deposits of iron-ore will be discussed in connection with the detailed description of each of them. In 
general, it may be said that all those which occur in connection with carbonate rocks have a similar 
origin to the larger deposits, whilst the others are usually the direct result of the oxidation of pyrite. 

Washbourn Block. 

The iron-ore deposit occurring in Washbourn Block is much the largesl and also the best -known 
of all the ore-deposits of the Parapara subdivision. It appears at intervals for 10") chains from north 
to south, and for 36 chains from east to west. Beneath the debris the ore probably occurs over almost 
all of this area, though, of course, there is no absolute certainty on this point without surface operations — 
pitting, stripping, &c. That there are some places where it is absent i- shown by the outcrops of com- 
plex carbonate, which, as lias been already shown, underlie the ore. However, the point that is most 
striking about the deposit in Washbourn Block is the vast amount of ore which is visible on the surface. 

Quite one-quarter of the area in which the outcrops of the ore occur at intervals is actually covered 
by iron-ore. The longest single continuous outcrop is that of Mount Hinopai. where the ore 
appears unbrokenly for 36 chains. This same outcrop ha- a width of over 5 chains at the widest point. 
Mount Hinopai has a local relief of 210 ft. above Limonite Creek, the ore being exposed almost con- 
tinuously from the creek-bed to the top of the hill ( Plate XXIV). The gorge of Washbourn Creek, below 
the junction of skilton Gully and Limonite < 'reek, is cut completely in iron-ore (Plate XXIII). In places 

the water disappears beneath the huge boulders of ore. which clog the creek-bed ( Plate XXIV), while 
elsewhere splendid cliffs of solid ore rise majestically from the stream. From Washbourn Creek the 
ore is exposed almost continuously for 12 chains to the east ward and -i chains to the westward. Another 
fine mass of on' is that which rises to the south-west of Maori Gully, in a low knob having a local relief 
of 80ft. Important exposures of iron-ore, but smaller than those just mentioned, occur at the head 
of Glen Mutchin, in No. '2 face, north of the iron huts, on either side of Washbourn Creek near the paint- 
works (Plate XXV), on the Parapara Beach Road, near Washboum's Dam, and on the Tukurua 

The quality of the iron-ore occurring in Washbourn Block is, in general, extremely high. Most of 
it is replaced ore — that is, ore formed by the replacement of lime and magnesian carbonates by ferrous 
carbonate and by subsequent oxidation of the latter. This replaced ore contains little detrital impurity, 
but in places it shows a great many -mall cpiartz fragments, which, as already explained, are quartz 
lenses present in the original carbonate that have not suffered replacement with the rest of the rock. 
In addition to these quartzes the ore in places shows considerable secondary silica, while near the 
Tukurua Saddle it is highly micaceous. Along the sluicing gulch flowing from Washboum's Dam to 
Washbourn Creek the ore in places is highly ochreous and contains soft argillaceous bands. 


Conglomerate ore- that is. ore formed by the erosion of the pure replaced ore and subsequent 
mixing with exotie pebbles of various sorts — occurs in places along Washbourn Creek, more especially 
near the mouth of the gorge, and from that point along the slopes of the hill on the eastern side of the 
stream as far as the paint-works. It occurs also in Bassett Gully, in No. 2 face, and elsewhere. The 
conglomerate is evidently a surface deposit, which probably at a short distance beneath the surface 
will give way to the purer replaced ore. The ore occurring at the head of Glen Mutchkin has a curious 
conglomeratic appearance. This is due to the fact that much of the ore is in the form of concretionary 
lumps, which are disposed in a soft and friable matrix. The concretionary lumps are generally of 
g I quality, though the matrix is often decidedly earthy. 

The ore is of splendid quality on Mount Rinopai, on Rinonui Hill, on the hill situated just south 
of the mouth of Maori Gully, on the hill lying within the 240 ft. contour just east of Washbourn Creek, 
and in the cliff on the eastern side of Washbourn Creek below the mouth of Skilton Gully. 

In order that the exact chemical nature of the ore-body might be known, complete representative 
sampling was made of every available part of the ore-deposit in Washbourn Block, and the analyses 
made therefrom have shown the splendid quality of the ore in a very striking manner. Hydrous iron- 
oxides with over 50 per cent, of metallic iron may be considered of high grade ; with 40 to 50 per cent., 
of medium grade ; and with less than 40 per cent., of low grade. In all, thirty-four representative 
analyses were made ; of these twenty-nine showed ores over 50 per cent, in the iron content, and hence 
the ores were high-grade limonites ; while the remaining five, between 40 and 50 per cent., represented 
medium-grade ores. 

The locality from which each sample was taken, and its iron content may be stated as 
follows : — . 

Per Cent, 
fl. From the hill, 5 chains south of mouth of Maori Gully . . . . . . . . 5818 

**2. ,. entrance of gorge of Washbourn Creek . . . . . . . . . . 57-81 

3. ., cliff of ore east side of Washbourn Creek, at the crossing of the 200 ft. contour-line . . 56-34 

4. ,, point on Washbourn Creek half-way between the crossing of the 80 ft. and 120 ft. 

contour-lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-55 

*5. ,, half-way up Zebra Gully .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54-71 

6. „ 3 chains below crossing of Limonite Creek by 280 ft. contour-line. . . . . . 54-49 

7. .. knob of ore lying just east of Washbourn Creek within 240 ft. contour-line. . . . 54-43 

8. „ Glen Mutchkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-03 

*9. ,. Limonite Creek, half-way between mouth of Xanther Creek and 280 ft. contour-line. . 53-93 

**10. „ Blue Pond .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 53-55 

11. ,, crossing of Limonite Creek. 3 chains below 280 ft. contour-line westward to the top 

of Mount Rinopai .. .. .. .. .. .. .'. 52-75 

12. ,, north side of Washbourn Creek, near paint-mill .. .. .. .. 52-64 

13. ,, Rinonui Hill inside 240 ft. contour- line .. .. .. .. .. 52-64 

14. ,. Sluicing Gulch (entering Limonite Creek above Bassett Gully), between 160 ft. and 

200 ft, contour-lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-58 

15. ,, knob between Washbourn Creek and Bassett Gully . . . . . . . . 52-56 

**16. ,, lower part of W'ashbourn Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-53 

17. ,. northern slopes of Mount Rinopai . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-42 

18. ,, south side of Washbourn Creek, just south of paint-mill . . . . . . 52-25 

**19. ., Washbourn Creek, just above mouth of Sluicing Gulch . . . . . . . 52-19 

20. ,, deep cut in Sluicing Gulch (entering Washbourn Creek). . . . . . . . 52-14 

21. ,, W.shbourn Creek, between mouth of Sluicing Gulch and crossing of 80 ft. contour-line 51-41 

22. ,, cliff of ore on eastern slopes of Mount Rinopai. . . . . . . . 51-35 

*23. ,, Limonite Creek, 3 chains below crossing of 280 ft. contour-line . . . . . . 51-35 

24. ,, Bank of New Zealand road, at crossing of creek from Washbourn's Dam . . . . 51-30 

■j- This sample, and probably others, contain some gothite. 




G< o. Built tin No. -J.] 

Ui'KKur of Iron-ore, Washbourn Block. 


•25. From Limonite Creek, half-way between crossing of 240 ft. and 280 ft. contour-lines 

26. ,, eastern branch of Bassett Gully, at the crossing of the 120 ft. contour-line 

27. „ outcrop close to the road near iron huts 

28. „ western slopes of Rinonui Hill 

29. ,, Bank of New Zealand road, on slopes of Mount Rinopai at 280 ft. contour-line 

30. ,, Sluicing Gulch (ochreous ore) at point half-way between Washbourrj Creek 

Rinonui Hill . . . . . . . . 47-66 

31. ",, near head of Zebra Gully .. .. .. .. .. .. 4614 

*32. ,, upper reaches of Zebra Gully . . . . . . 45-36 

33. „ outcrop about 5 chains north of the iron huts. . . . . . 4406 

34. ,, saddle leading from headwaters of Washbourn Creek to Tukurua Creek, and north- 

wards to Zebra Gully . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 7 1 

Per Cent. 
. 5113 
. 50-90 
. 50-74 
. 50-68 
. 50-29 

The average iron content of these thirtx -lour samples is 51*79 |>cr cent. 

Most of these specimens arc of replaced ore. and every effort was made to make the samples col- 
lected thoroughly characteristic of the several localities. Specimens in the list above, marked with a 
single asterisk are of lumps of ore doubtfully m sttu, while those marked with a double asterisk are 
from the matrix of a conglomerate ore, the pebbles having been removed. 

.Sample I from the hill of ore south of the mouth of Maori Gully— a very high-grade ore — is pro- 
bably at least partly ore which has descended to its present position by gravity, as it seems to overlie 
schist, or it may be ore derived by direct precipitation from solution. Complete analyses were also 
made — (1) of sample I above, (2) of sample 34 above, which represent the highest and lowest grade 

ores respectively in Washbourn Creek; and (-'5) from a mixture of twenty-eight of the samples — with 
the following results : — 

Silica (SiO,) 

Alumina (Al a 3 ) 

Ferric oxide (Fe„0 3 ) 

Ferrous oxide (FeO). . 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Titanium-oxide (ISO,) 
{Phosphoric anhydride (P 2 0-) 
§Sulphuric anhydride (SO;,) 

Carbon-dioxide (C0 2 ) 


Water, and loss on ignition 


25 31 

General Sample 






f71 25 

2 c 





























11 84 




In the examination of an iron-ore body nothing is more difficult than the estimation of the quantity 
of ore available. In the case of the Parapara iron-on- tin- surface boundaries, which are evidently 
most irregular, mav be taken as an indication of equally great complication in the boundaries beneath 
tin- surface. However, since any calculation may be better than none, the following may be given, 
based purely on available facts. It is not probable that the ore will be found to be of less quantitv 
than that given, and it mav be very much greater. 

t Equivalent to metallic iron, 51 38 per cent. 

j Equivalent to phosphorus — X". 1, 0-14 per cent. : No. 2, 0-13 per cent. ; general sample, 0-15 per cent. 

§ Equivalent to sulphur — No. 1, 0-10 per cent. : No. 2, 0-10 per cent. ; general -ample, 0-08 per cent. 

6— Kararuea. 


The calculation of the amount of ore available may be regarded as an approximation, for while tlie 
actual areas of the several outcrops which the whole deposit have been ascertained most care- 
fully, the depth of the ore in the various areas is practically an unknown dimension. The following 
explanation should be made of the manner in which the tonnage approximation expressed here has 
been obtained. In connection with the smaller areas— namely, that on the Tukurua saddle, on the 
Bank of New Zealand road west of Washbourn Dam, at the head of Glen Mutchkin, in No. 2 face, 
and the two small patches north of the iron huts on the road from Parapara Hall to Mr. Bassett's house — 
an average depth of ore of 40 ft. has been assumed in each case, while in the area south of the mouth 
of Maori Gully this constant has been increased to 60 ft. In the case of the large occurrence on Mount 
Rinopai, the base upon which the iron-ore is lying is assumed to be an inclined plane having an eleva- 
tion of 200 ft. at the north end and 320 ft. at the south end, near which carbonate rock appears in the 
bed of Zebra Gully. The ore of the large area from Mount Rinopai to Bassett Gully is assumed to lie 
on a horizontal base, having an elevation of 40 ft. above sea-level. Contour-lines were determined at 
vertical intervals of 40 ft., thus enabling the thickness of the ore lying on the assumed bases to be 
calculated. By means of cross-section lines, run in an east and west direction and intersecting the 
contour-lines, the ore-bodies were divided into a number of small masses, and the cubic contents of 
each separately determined by multiplying the area by the mean depth or thickness of ore. The results 
obtained are summarised in the following table, in which, as a result of actual field experiment, 1 1 cubic 
feet of ore is allowed to the ton of 2,240 lb. : — 

Area on Tukurua saddle 
,, adjoining Bank of New Zealand road 
„ at head of Glen Mutchkin 
,, on south of mouth of Maori Gully 
„ within No. 2 face 
Areas near iron huts 
Area on Mount Rinopai 

„ Rinonui Hill and westward to Bassett Gully 


Surface Area, in 
Square Yards. 

Volume, in Cubic 



























Tukurua Block. 

The iron-ore deposit occurring in the Tukurua Block is much smaller than the more northern 
deposit in Washbourn Block. Impure ore outcrops on the slopes of the Tukurua Stream, at a point 
some two and a half miles from its mouth, and appears at intervals on the western slopes of the Ngarino 
Ridge, to and beyond trigonometrical station J J. Much of this area is thickly bush-covered, and con- 
sequently it is very difficult to say just how much of the area in which the hydrous iron-oxides appear 
intermittently is underlain by ore, though it seems probable that much of the country between the 
extreme limits will show ore when stripped. It is, however, quite certain that not all of it will, since 
outcrops of rocks, such as sericite- quartz schists and coarse-grained quartzite (both apparently altered 
carbonate rocks), which underlie the ore, appear in places. 

The ore rises from a height of about 450 ft. above the sea, in Tukurua Creek, where it first appears, 
to 1,276 ft. on trigonometrical station J J. By far the best exposure of the ore is that to be seen in the 
open country near this trigonometrical station. Northward of the station, hillocks and mounds of 
ore rise in considerable number, giving an almost continuous exposure for 20 chains from north-west to 
south-east, with a maximum width of 13 chains. There are some fine hilly exposures of ore south- 
ward of the same trigonometrical station. On the eastern slopes of the Ngarino Ridge ore outcrops in 
small cliffs and irregular mounds, some of which may be recemented talus from the hills above. At the 
foot of the eastern slope of the Ngarino Ridge, 28 chains east-north-east from trigonometrical station 
J J, a small body of iron-ore occurs, but is apparently only a surface deposit. It may be either material 
which has gravitated from the Ngarino Ridge, or the deposit of an ancient chalybeate spring. 


The quality of the ore in the Tukurua Block is not on the whole as good as that in Washbourn 
Block. The ore occurring in Tukurua Creek, at about two and a half miles from the mouth, is generally 
of low quality, being ochreous, and in places micaceous. That appearing on the slopes of the ridge 
about 10 chains to the north of the exposure on Tukurua Stream, and not far from the stream itself, 
is generally of low grade, being both arenaceous and argillaceous. The ore outcropping about 10 chains 
south-south-east from the exposure on the Tukurua Stream is of good quality, and consists of porous. 
sometimes botryoidal limonite, with a little gothite, and possibly turgite. 

The large body of ore extending to the northward from trigonometrical station J J is of splendid 
quality and is entirely ore formed by replacement, consisting of purplish, porous limonite, with a little 
gothite. The ore at the same station, and southward therefrom towards the Onakaka, is nearly all of 
poor quality. Some of it is highly micaceous replaced ore. and some is conglomerate ore, the result 
apparently of a recementation of ore and quartzose wash derived from the quartzose conglomerate, or 
lowest formation of the Oamaru Series. 

Several analyses of ore wen- made from various parts of the Tukurua Block to ascertain the 
metallic iron content. These may be enumerated as follows : 

Per Cant. 

*1. From outcrop LI chains north-north-west of Trig. J J .. .. 59-35 

■_'. .. about 4 chains to east of Tukurua Stream and a quarter ot a mile w est -nort h-west of 

Trig. .) J . . . . . . . . . . 56-38 

3. .. 16 ft. cliff on right bank, some 1<> chains to the north of outcrop of ore on Tukurua 

Stream .. .. .. 55-16 

4. .. knob (i chains south of Trig. .) J .. .. .. .. .. IS- 1. "5 

5. .. outcrop on east bank of Tukurua Creek, two and a half miles from its mouth .. 16-54 

6. .. outcrop '_' chains east of outcrop No. 5, in Tukurua Creek . . I 1-03 

7. .. outcrop 4 chains east of Trig. J J .. .. .. ■.. 13-79 

The average iron content of these samples is 50*48 per cent. 

Onakaka Block. 

The exposures of ore in the Onakaka area are ot great extent, and th • quantity of ore contained 
must be enormous, though it is impossible by any means adequately to estimate the whole amount, 
owing to the dense covering ot vegetation which completely clothes the ridges where the ore occurs. 
As already remarked, the ore-deposit is completely cut through by the Onakaka Stream, which incises the 
carbonate rocks in its headwaters for over a mile. Iron-ore appears n> situ al the headwaters of the 
fcwo branches of Ironstone Creek, and appears irregularly at intervals on the ridge between Ironstone 
Creek and the Onakaka. from a point near the Bridal Veil Fall, southward tor over a mile and a half. 
That the ore is not continuous over all this wide area is shown bv the presence of wide exposures 
of carbonate and coarse carbonatic quartzite (originally probably a quartzose carbonate) between 
the outcrops of ore in many places along the Onakaka Ridge, as may be seen by a glance at the geo- 
logical map. In many places carbonatic quartzites or quartzose carbonates appear beneath a stratum 
of ore. 

The most northerly area of ore. occurring just to the south of the Bridal Veil Falls, shows a con- 
siderable amount of ore. A talus of iron-ore fragments descends to tin- north and north-east, while 
on the north-west side steep cliffs of ore appear near the summit of the ridge, with fragments strewn 
over the slopes towards the Onakaka. On the south-eastern side, some fine faces. 20ft. and more in 
height, descend to Ironstone Creek. On the western slopes of Ironstone Creek Valley, northward from 
the junction of the two branches, iron-ore appears almost continuously for 25 chains. Splendid cliffs 
and faces are observable, ascending in places from the Ironstone I 'reek bed to the summit of the Onakaka 
Ridge. On ascending the ridge between the two branches of Ironstone Creek from their junction 
ore is met with in a steep incline, practically forming a face 60 ft. in height, but so much covered with 

* This ore is mainly limonite. hut probably aiao contains gothite, 
- Karamea. 


vegetation as to be difficult of definition. Scattered boulders appear along tbe ridge to a point not far 
north of the Hidden Treasure track, where a fine face of ore 20 ft. in height is exposed (Plate XXVI). 
The eastern slopes of the ridge here descend almost sheer to one of the branches of Ironstone Creek, 
and present practically a continuous face of ore from the summit of the ridge to the creek-bed. On 
the western slopes but little ore is exposed, the underlying altered carbonate appearing almost con- 
tinuously with occasional remnants of the ore. 

Along the Hidden Treasure track, between the two branches of Ironstone Creek, iron-ore is exposed 
almost continuously, in places showing faces 15 ft. and more in height. Following along the ridge 
in a southerly direction from the most northerly bend of the Hidden Treasure track, boulders and loose 
fragments of ore are common for a distance of about half a mile, when a hill-like accumulation of large 
fragments appears. At this point iron-ore flanks the western slopes in low cliffs, and shoads for some 
distance down the eastern side. Southward from this irregular mound the underlying carbonate, often 
altered, is frequently exposed, while only occasional fragments of ore appear. These may represent the 
residue of a once continuous deposit along the whole extent of the ridge. 

In general, the ore on the Onakaka Block is of medium to high grade, though inclined to be 
micaceous. It is almost entirely of replaced character, and the impurities occurring are mainly those 
which were present in the original complex carbonate. In the large mass of ore lying just south of the 
Bridal Veil Falls, the ore consists of porous limonite of fair quality in the northern part, improving 
towards the south. In the large exposure facing Ironstone Creek on the western side below the 
junction of its two tributaries, the ore varies considerably in quality, in places being highly siliceous 
or micaceous limonite, again a high-grade porous or concretionary limonite ; in general, it may be said 
to improve greatly in quality from north to south. 

Along the ridge between the two tributaries of Ironstone Creek, the ore varies greatly from place 
to place. North of the northern bend of the Hidden Treasure track the ore is, as a rule, of medium 
quality, though limonite of high grade occurs, alternating in places with low-grade material. Along the 
ridge south of the northern bend of the Hidden Treasure track, the ore for the first 25 chains changes 
from low to medium grade. It consists of porous, occasionally rusty, and often concretionary 
limonite, in plages micaceous or siliceous, with frequent inclusions of quartz. Further south along 
the ridge, to the point wdiere the ore is replaced by the underlying carbonate, there is a noticeable im- 
provement in the quality of the ferruginous material. Along the Hidden Treasure track, on the eastern 
side of the ridge between the two branches of Ironstone Creek, the ore is generally not of good quality, 
though it is occasionally of high grade. Much better ore appears on the eastern side of the ridge, 
where some is of excellent quality. 

The following analyses show the percentage of metallic iron in the ore at various places on the 
great deposit in the Onakaka Block. It will be seen that out of forty specimens four are of 
high-grade ore, thirty-two of medium grade, and only four are of low grade. It is noteworthy that 
the ore varies markedly in quality within a short distance. 

Per Cent. 

1. From eastern side of Onakaka Ridge, to west of junction of branches of Ironstone Creek . . 5244 

2. „ western slope of Onakaka Ridge, about 26 chains south of Bridal Veil Falls . . 52-44 

3. „ Onakaka Ridge, overlooking Ironstone Creek and 28 chains west-north-west of Trig. X 50-86 

4. „ Hidden Treasure track, to west of outcrop from which No. 27 was obtained. . . . 50-44 

5. „ ridge between branches of Ironstone Creek, 45 chains south-west of Trig. X . . 49-70 

6. ,. heaps of broken ore on Onakaka Ridge, 47 chains south-west of Trig. X . . . . 49-21 

7. „ eastern branch of Ironstone Creek, about 2 chains above the crossing of Hidden Trea- 

sure track .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49-19 

8. „ steep face of ore on ridge between branches of Ironstone Creek, and 22 chains west- 

south-west of Trig. X . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-08 

9. ,, Onakaka Ridge, between points 9 chains south-south-east of Bridal Veil Falls and 

18 chains further south . . . . . . . . . . . . 4903 

10. .. eastern branch of Ironstone Creek, about half a mile above the junction with the 

western branch . . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . 48-99 


Per Cent. 

11. From Onakaka Ridge, 15 chains west-north-west of junction of eastern and western branches 

of Ironstone Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-51 

12. ,, western slope of ridge between branches of Ironstone Creek, 4 chains south-east of 

point where Hidden Treasure track approaches western branch . . . . 48-45 

13. ,, along the ridge between branches of Ironstone Creek, from point 52 chains south-south- 

west of Trig. X to point 14 chains further south . . . . . . . . 48-44 

14. ,, 2 chains west of outcrop from which No. 4 was obtained .. .. ,. .. 47-91 

15. „ Hidden Treasure track, on left bank of eastern branch of Ironstone Creek . . . . 47-84 

16. „ eastern branch of Ironstone Creek, above and below the point where the Hidden Trea- 

sure track crosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-68 

17. ,, point where Hidden Treasure track crosses western branch of Ironstone Creek .. 47-56 

18. ,, Onakaka Ridge, 11 chains west of junction of the branches of Ironstone Creek . . 4719 

19. ,, Ridge between the two branches of Ironstone Creek, 32 chains south-south-west of 

Trig X .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47-17 

20. ,, Hidden Treasure track, 2 chains north of point where it crosses eastern branch of 

Ironstone Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-75 

21. „ Ridge between the branches of Ironstone Creek, on both sides of outcrop where No. 4 

was obtained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-24 

22. „ Hidden Treasure track, between branches of Ironstone Creek and 15 chains from point 

where it crosses eastern branch ' . . . . . . . . . . , . 45-96 

23. ,, Hidden Treasure track, to south-east of outcrop from which No. 28 was obtained . . 45-89 

24. „ western branch of Ironstone Creek, from junction for 21 chains up stream .. .. 45-64 

25. ,, Hidden Treasure track. 4 chains north-east of point where it crosses western branch 

of Ironstone Creek . . . . . . . . . . 44-88 

26. ,, eastern branch of Ironstone Creek. 26 chains above its junction with western branch 4403 

27. ,, Hidden Treasure track, at its most northerly bend between eastern and western 

branches of Ironstone ( leek .. .. .. .. .. 43-93 

28. ,, nail of ore 8 chains west of junction of the two branches of Ironstone Creek. . .. 43-25 

29. ,, face of ore on Onakaka Ridge overlooking Ironstone Creek, about 15 chains south-east 

of Bridal Veil Fall- .. .. .. 4306 

30. ,, western branch of Ironstone Creek, just above the junction . . . . . . 42-92 

31. ,, 15 ft. fat f OW on Onakaka Ridge, 25 chains south of Bridal Veil Kails . . . . 42-28 

32. .. 60 ft. face of ore in western branch of Ironstone < !reek 13 chains above the junction. . 42-24 

33. ., west of point where Hidden Treasure track crosses eastern branch of Ironstone Creek, 

and southwards to position of No. 5 .. .. .. ..41-83 

34. ,, ridge between two branches of Ironstone Creek. 6 chains west-north-west of point 

where Hidden Treasure track i stem branch of Ironstone Creek.. .. 41-36 

35. ,, Headwaters eastern branch of Ironstone Creek .. .. .. .. .. 41-30 

36. .. Onakaka Ridge overlooking Ironstone Creek, just west of position of No. 29 .. 41-02 

37. ,, Onakaka Ridge, 10 chains east-south-east of Bridal Veil Falls .. .. .. 37-58 

38. ,, Onakaka Ridge, just west of position of No. 36.. .. .. .. .. 36-57 

39. .. head of Turnbull Creek .. .. .. .. .. .. 3303 

10. .. right bank of western branch of Ironstone Creek, 29 chains below crossing of Hidden 

Treasure track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2499 

The average iron content of the forty analyses is 45*17 per cent. 

In order to demonstrate the exact chemical nature of the ore occurring in the Onakaka Block, 
the two analyses given below are inserted. No. 1 is a very high-grade ore, while No. 2 is of medium 


*Ferric oxide (Fe^0 3 ) 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 

Titaiiiuni-oxide (Ti0 2 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Lime (CaO) . . 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . . 
"("Phosphoric anhydride (P 2 5 ) 
JSulphuric anhydride (S0 3 ) 

Water and organic mattej 

X... 1. 

No. 2 

.. 8108 







3 86 














100 44 


It is, unfortunately, quite impossible to estimate in any war the amount of ore occurring in the 
Onakaka Block. It is certainly of vast extent, but the thick forest-growth and the large amount of 
surface debris preclude a more exact delineation. As the result of careful observations, however, the 
authors of this Bulletin think it is probable that the ore will not be found to be of any great depth, owing 
to the nature of the deposit. That the ore will give place to carbonate rock at a short but greatly 
variable distance from the surface seems to be demonstrated by the fact that the carbonate rock on 
which it rests protrudes at so many places on the surface. Nevertheless, there is ample ore in sight 
to attract the most exacting of iron-ore seekers. 

Pakiwhakaoho Area. 

The iron-ore exposed on Flowers' track to Parapara Peak, at a height of nearly 3,000 ft., is gene- 
rally of poor quality, and is inconsiderable in extent and apparently in depth. Fragments of ore appear 
on the surface, in an area about 4 chains square, lying on the eroded upturned beds of rusty complex 
carbonate, pitted in places by sink-holes, one of which at the' head of Break-me-up Creek is of consider- 
able size. The ore consists of porous limonite, both arenaceous and micaceous. With it are associated 
water- worn cobbles of quartz and quartzite, which may represent a remnant of the quartzose con- 
glomerate occurring at the base of the Oamaru Series. "A sample of ore from this locality was foimd 
on analysis to contain 47 03 per cent, of metallic iron. 

Minor Occurrences of Ore. 

Glen Gyle. — The ore occurring at the head of the Glen Gyle Sluicing Claim is associated with altered 
complex carbonate rock, and consists of low-grade arenaceous and argillaceous ochreous material of 
no great extent. It often occurs in spheroidal lumps a foot or less in^diameter, froni'yvriich shells of 
ore, varying in quality from the centre outwards, break off in weathering. During" the conduct of 
sluicing operations at the head of Glen Gyle hundreds of tons of this ore were sluiced away from their 
original position. 

Fletcher Creek. — In Fletcher Creek, about a quarter of a mile above its mouth, there is a small 
occurrence of very lean iron-ore. This is associated with a dark, highly decomposed sericitic carbonate, 
which shows occasional limonite scales on its surface. The ore is. in general, of a concretionary nature, 
and of very low grade, containing a great deal of silica. It appears as a few large blocks in the creek- 
bed, while for a distance of about 2 chains the decomposed carbouate is highly impregnated with limonite. 
An analysis of the ferruginous material showed an iron content of only 2673 per cent. 

Track from Bainham to the Castles. — On the track from Bainham to the Castles, about one and a 
quarter miles from the footbridge over the Aorere River, and at an altitude of 817 ft. above sea-level, 

* Equivalent to mettllic iron — No. 1, 5tr75 per cent. ; No. 2, 44-69 per cent, 
f Equivalent to phosphorus — Xo. 1, OIT per cent. ; Xo. 2, 0'8 per cent. 
% Equivalent to sulphur — No. 1, - 32 per cent. ; Xo. 2, - 24 per cent. 


Iron-ore, Washbourk Block, wear I'mni Mill 

Bulletin No. ;.j 

Iron-ore, YVashbourn Hi. oik. 


there is a small outcrop of iron-ore. This is of a very spongy nature, showing occasionally a little 
gothite, and containing numerous quartz fragments. The outcrop is very local, and of small extent, 
resting seemingly in a small syncline in a rusty, cherty, banded argillite. It has apparently originated 
from the oxidation of pyrite occurring in the surrounding area, with concentration of the resulting 
feme oxide in the small synclinal basin. An analysis of a representative specimen gave the iron content 
as 35 52 per cent. 

Appo's (iiifli/ mid Appo's Flat. — Near the carbonate at the head of Appo's Gully a great many 
rough and irregular blocks of ore are strewn about on the surface. In Appo's Flat sluicing operations 
have laid bare a rusty, coarsely crystalline carbonate beneath the quartzose wash. In places this is 
surmounted by many fragments of limonite of varying quality, associated with ochreous material. 
Some of the limonite occurs as long pipes of very irregular form, containing crusts of pyrite within 
the tubes. These are of very curious shapes, and seem to have been formed originally around ligneous 
material, a fact which would account for the presence of the pyrite. The pyrite in the quartzose 
wash above would be oxidized to ferrous sulphate (PeSO ,). and wouhl percolate downward in that form. 
On coming in contact with the carbonaceous matter of the wood, the iron would be reprecipitated as 
sulphide. Later the outer portion would be reoxidized when coming in closer contact with the oxygen 
of the air. Pipes of pure pyrite or marcasite, quite unoxidized and stalactitic in shape, have been 
discovered during sluicing operations in the quartzose wash at the Glen Gyle Sluicing Claim. 

Copperstain Creek. — In Coppei I reek, a tributary of the Pariwhakaoho Stream, impure 

hydrous iron-oxides appear in several places as (he gossan of the mineralised zone located in that stream. 
A representative sample of the gossan was found on analysis to contain some 3(H9 per cent, of metallic 

Miscellaneous Occurrences. —Near the headwaters of Greenwood Creek earthy hydrous iron-oxide 
appears in an inconsiderable exposure, a tew yards in extent, in close contact with chertv rocks. The 
me is apparently the result of the decomposition of pyrite in the adjoining strata. An analysis 
made of a representative sample gave a metallic content of 19*22 pel cent. Ore of a similar origin, 
and of equally paltry dimensions, occurs in Grueby Creek. Small pockets of hydrous iron-oxides, 
derived from the oxidation of pyrite, appear in the carbonaceous argillites along the ridge to the west 
of the Parapara River, but they are much too small to be of any value. 

Hydrous iron-oxides, the deposits of chalybeate springs, are to be seen m Wakefield Gully, along 
the lower Tukurua. and elsewhere. Great thicknesses of h\ droits iron-oxide of great purity are being 
constantly deposited by meteoric waters in the lower drives of the Johnston's United .Mine, near Decimal 
Gully. An analysis made ol a sample of the ferruginous coating gave 57 69 pel cent, of metallic iron. 
In many places the debris appearing on the surface ol the uplands south-east from the tarere River 
is stained with iron-rust. 


It seems remarkable that deposits of iron-ore of such immensity, ol BUCfa high average quality, 
and of such easy accessibility should have remained so long unworked. The day surely cannot be far 
distant when these enormous deposits will be mined on a scale commensurate with their great pro- 
portion-. Imposed as they are on the surface, they possess every facility for cheap and easy winning ; 
while their close proximity to the sea-coasi at once afford- every opportunity for their exportation 
in the crude state or as pig-iron. 

The actual winning of the ore could be undertaken with little difficulty or expense by simply 
quarrying on the open-cul system. In the Blesabi section of the Lake Superior region in the United 
States ol America, where somewhat similar conditions prevail, the actual cost of mining is estimated 
at 80 cents, or 3s. 4d., per ton.* In New Zealand the average cost should not greatly exceed this 
amount, and mining i perations might be conducted even more economically. It will probably be found 
expedient to convert the ore into pig-irmi before exportation. There are several suitable spots for the 
location of blast furnaces, which would command the ore from the Onakaka and Tukurua Blocks, and 

* See Engineering and Mining Journal, 20th April, 1007, \>. 760. 

H8 . 

thai I nun Washbourn Block. One of the best positions for locating a plant to deal with the Onakaka 
and Tukurua ore is on the spacious flat near the mouth of the Onakaka Stream ;] while an equally 
desirable site for the erection of reduction-works for ore drawn from the Washbourn Block is to be 
obtained near the shores of Parapara Inlet. 

The most suitable spot for constructing a wharf tor shipping the ore or its products from Washbourn 
Block, and for landing the materials requisite for mining and metallurgical operations, lies a little to 
the north of Tukurua Point. Though there is but little shelter here, almost no storm is sufficient!) 
strong to affect, for large vessels, the general tranquility of Golden Bay, sheltered by the Cape Farewell 
Spit. Owing to the gradually shelving" nature of the coast-line, the length of the jetty required to 
accommodate large vessels would be about 67 chains. This length would give a depth of 30 ft. of water 
at the lowest state of the tide. The special map facing this page shows the exact position of the pro- 
posed wharf. 

The iron-ore, as will be observed from the tabulated analyses of many samples, is of high grade, 
and well suited for the manufacture of iron and steel. The iron made experimentally from this ore 
in Melbourne in 1870 was of good quality, as is indicated by the following analysis.: — 

Metallic iron 
Sulphur . . 

Pig-iron. Per c^ 



Titanium, manganese, sulphur, and phosphorus are all present in the ore. None of these ex- 
traneous elements, however, occur in such proportions as to render the metallurgical treatment difficult 
or the commercial products inferior to those turned out by many of the leading iron-producing mines 
of the world. 

It is scarcely within the scope of this report to discuss the metallurgical treatment which would 
appear to be most applicable in this particular case, although mention should be made of the facilities 
which exist for the obtaining of suitable fuel and limestone — the main supplementary requisites in 
blast-furnace operations. 

The necessary limestone flux for effecting the removal of the silica in the reduction of the ore lies 
conveniently at hand. Some of the crystalline complex carbonates, with which the ore-bodies are 
generally associated, would certainly be suitable for this purpose, though doubtless a still better flux 
is to be found in the limestones of the Oamaru Series occurring on the Parapara Inlet, in the Lower 
Parapara, and elsewhere. 

Coal in large quantities, which would yield suitable coke, is unfortunately not so readily available 
as the carbonate flux. The Puponga coal, which occurs some twenty miles north of Washbourn Block, 
does not yield a coke well fitted for metallurgical purposes. At Pakawau, some eight miles from 
Parapara Inlet, a more suitable coal is obtainable, affording a fairly hard coke, while, at the same time, 
the objectionable sulphur content is not high. As far as is known at present, however, the beds of 
this coal are of very small extent, though boring operations on a large scale might reveal thicker seams 
in this locality.* The well-known coal-producing centre of Westport is distant from Parapara some 
145 miles by sea or 135 miles by overland route ; without, however, the necessary transit faculties in 
the latter case. The abun dance of high-class coal available in the W T estport district affords a coke emi- 
nently adapted for the requirements of the smelter, and no good reason appears to exist why it should 
not be landed at Parapara at a cost consistent with the undertaking of profitable and extensive 
metallurgical operations. • 

At the present time the Taitapu Gold Estates Company is engaged in boring for coal in the Pakawau district. 

To accompany Bulletin US 3,Pco~apara Subdivision, Karamea Division, Nelson Land District 




O 10 

Scum dings in feet. 
C Lewis, surveyor, March 1907 

Note. Flood spring tides set in from S £ from 3 to 3 'i Miles 
per hour. Rise and fall 1233 feet. Soundings given at LW.ST. 

° 26 

B a j 







tooc * err * m 

To accompany Bulletin N$ 3 

Geolo g ical Reference 

Ao-ere Series /ArdilliLes,Grauv»ackes,| 


Oamaru Series 

and Quartzites. 
Sandstones, Shales, 
Coal Seams, Con- 
glomerates, Breccias. 

Line of Reef 990above sea level shown in red 

0utcrop6 with observed strike and dip 

" " no " " " + + + 

Coal outcrops A 

From Surveys by KM. Graham and E J Webb 

Drawn by QAJjarby 

By Authority . John Machay. Government Printer, 

B, 300- 7 J 07-4~7O 




Page. Page. 

Distribution .. .. .. . . 8!t Special Areas — continued. 

Special Areas .. .. .. ..89 (/.) Veins of Boulder River .. .. 99 

(a.) Veins in the Vicinity of the Golden Ridge. . SO (</.) Veins of the Quartz Ranges .. .. 99 

(6.) Veins of the Johnston's United to Red (h.) Wins of the Kaituna River and its Tiibu- 

Hill Mineral Kelt . . <M tariee . . . . . . . . 100 

(c.) Veins of the Richmond Hill Area .. !l(i (».) Minor Veins of the Parapara River .. 100 

( /.) Veins of the Slate River and its Tribu- (/.) Ore-occurrence of the I'uiu hakaoho River 

taries . . . . . . 97 Valley . . . . . . 100 

(e.) Veins of Little Boulder River .. .. 99 Age and Origin of (Quartz Veins .. .. 100 

Quartz veins are of very general occurrence throughout the Parapara subdivision, in the areas covered 
by the rocks of the Aorere and Haupiri Series. They range in dimensions from small veinlets having 
little persistence or definition to strong well-defined ore-bodies having considerable vertical and longi- 
tudinal extension. 

With these veins may be considered, for the sake of convenience, certain zones of strata more or 
less impregnated with metalliferous ores in which vein silica generally plays only a subordinate part. 
Of these veins and mineralised zones, comparatively few constitute ore-deposits of any considerable 
economic importance. 

Special Akkas. 

The Veins described in the following section have been grouped for the sake of convenience as 
under : — 

(a.) Veins in the vicinity of the Golden Ridge. 

(b.) Veins of the Johnston's United to Red Hill Belt. 

(<".) Veins of the Richmond Hill area. 

(d.) Veins of the Slate River and its tributaries. 

(e.) Veins of Little Boulder River. 

(/.) Veins of Boulder River. 

(g.) Veins of the Quarts Ranges. 

(h.) Veins of the Kaituna River and its tributaries. 

(».) Minor veins of the Parapara River. 

0'.) Ore-occurrence of the Pariwhakaoho River Valley. 

(a.) Veins in thk Vicinity ok the Golden Ridoe. 

The well-known auriferous area of the Golden Ridgr is situated in the rugged bush-clad country 
lying to the south-east of the Wanganui Inlet Some of the veins in this locality are outside the limits 
ot tht. Parapara subdivision, but as they occur close to its boundary, and belong to the same reef- 
system as those within the subdivision, they are considered in tht same connection, and will be found 
marked on the special map of the Golden Ridge area facing p. 92. 

The mines of this district are situated on the Taitapu Gold Estates Company's property, the history 
of which from a mining point of view has already been given in the historical section, Chapter ii. 

The only gold-producing mine in actual operation at the present time on the area covered by the 
Taitapu Gold Estate is the Aorangi, or Golden Blocks, situated in the southern portion of the estate, 
and falling just within the north-western corner of the Aorere Survey District. Of the others which 
have contributed to the gold-output of the past, only three need be specially noticed — namely, the 
Anthill, situated half a mile to the north of the Aorangi, and the Golden Ridge and adjacent New Find 


Mines, Ivinga quarter of a mile further to the north. Brief reference will also be made to other minor 
workings on the estate. 

The country in the immediate vicinity of the various mines of the estate is extremely rugged, and 
deeply incised by stream-action. The principal reef-system follows a sharp ridge known as the 
" Golden Ridge," which runs in a northerly direction from Sandhill Creek towards Mount Baldy, and 
is terminated a little south of the latter by Slaty Creek. The rocks of this particular area are inter- 
bedded argillites, grauwackes, and quartzites, constituting the undoubted Ordovician beds of the Aorere 
Series. The argillites of this area have yielded all the graptolitic forms described from the Aorere rocks, 
and are highly graphitic. The reducing action of their carbon content has resulted in their impregna- 
tion with pyrite precipitated from the vein-forming solutions. The rocks met within the various 
mine-workings are, in ascending order, fossiliferous argillites in considerable thickness, a narrow bed 
of quartzitic grauwacke, a coal-black carbonaceous argillite, frequently siliceous and never more than 
20 ft. in thickness, and finally quartzitic grauwackes of considerable thickness, passing into light-grey 
quartzites. Near the surface the carbonaceous argillite of the vein-system is found to be bleached, a fact 
which is indicative of oxidation by descending surface water, and has some bearing on the secondary 
enrichment of the upper portions of the ore-bodies. 

The strata as described appear to form the eastern limb of a synclinal fold, having a nearly north- 
and-south strike, practically coincident with the trend of the ridge, and having perhaps a slight southerly 
pitch. The more highly inclined strata in the upper portions of the fold are exposed in the high country 
towards Sandhill Creek, while the less steeply inclined and somewhat contorted strata near the base of 
the syncline appear at lesser elevations towards the north. In cross-section the folding of the strata, 
from observations made both on the surface and in mine-workings, may be illustrated as in the accom 
pauyine diagram, on which also the relative positions of the various mines in respect to the folding 
of the strata have been projected. 

Section op Golden Ridge. 



Surface contour 
Quartzitic grauwacke 
te & iein tormationr%^^ 

uarlzitic grauwacke 
Black argillites 

Scale ISO Feel tn an Inch 

To the north of the Golden Ridge the strata appear to have undergone considerable local flexure, 
producing a decided change in strike with app rently a pitch in the syncline towards the north-east. 

The principal vein or, as it is more correctly termed, mineralised zone, which traverses all the 
mining areas of the Taitapu Estate, appears to be definitely confined to the narrow band of carbonaceous, 
sometimes siliceous, argillite which has been referred to as never exceeding 20 ft. in width. The vein- 
quartz shows the usual characteristics of bedded veins in argillaceous strata, being disposed in sheets, 
lenticular in both vertical and horizontal cross-section. These lensoid masses, which occasionally 
slightly overlap, seldom exceed 5 ft. in thickness ; they rapidly thin out in all directions, and finally 
disappear entirely. They occur at irregular intervals along the zone of mineralisation, and are not 
definitely confined to any particular position in the argillite band. 

The vein- quartz is, in character, usually white and opaque, though much less frequently it presents 
a vitreous lustre. It is usually very friable, breaking readily into small, platy, roughly rhomboidal 


fragments, while much less commonly a granular structure is observable. The quartz is less friable 
and more compact where the argillite band becomes contracted in width, and the enclosing harder 
quartzitic grauwackes practically form the walls of the vein-material. When the argillite band shows 
increased width the vein-stun" becomes softer and rubblv. With the quartz, which is occasionally 
saccharoidal. occur, invariably, selvages and partings of black mulloeky argillite. 

The quartz is usually coated or mixed with graphite, a circumstance which, together with other 
appearances, seems to indicate the replacement of the carbonaceous argillite by the vein-material. 
( 'rustification is not seen, and then tore it may be inferred that hut little tilling of open spaces has 
taken place. 

The rhombic platv structure of much of the quartz simulates a replacement by calcite, hut must 
probably be referred rather to shearing action accompanying movements in the enclosing rocks subse- 
quent to the period of vein-formation. Differential movement is certainly recorded in the crushed 
slickensided nature of the argillites. especially in the selvages of the vein-walls. 

Gold and. to a very minor extent, silver constitute the valuable metalliferous contents of the 
ore.'and with these are associated pyrite, a peculiar greenish variety "1 marcasite, and a little native 


Th" gold, which is no doubt alloyed with the trifling amount of silver present, occurs usually 
as coarse particles throughout the mass of the vein- though Bometimos it exists as films, or 

till" " painted " coatings, on the planes of fracture or cleavage-surfaces. In the latter case its presence 

is din- tn secondarx enrichment. The gold in the rubblj quartz usually occurs in more or less well- 
defined streaks running parallel to or in (lose association with the mulloeky selvages or partings. Fre- 
quently it is dotted throughout the mass of brecciated quartz, in close contact with the black argillite 
inclusions. Its constant associate is the greenish marcasite. which, though seldom occurring in great 
quantities, is, on its appearance in the ore. a certain indicator of the proximity of gold. The pyrite, 
which is not present to any great extent, is usually associated with the marcasite and. consequently, 
with the more highly auriferous portions of the ore-bod} . The iron-sulphides may in part l»<- primary, 
but are probably mainly of secondary origin, or, rather, perhaps represent the original sulphides, which 
have been oxidized, dissolved, reduced, and reprecipitated. 

The occurrence of native copper in the vein-material, though not t<> any great extent, is worthy 
(it remark. Tt is occasion illy to be observed in small specks sparsely scattered throughout the quartz, 
and its appearance is considered to denote with certainty the absence of gold in the enclosing gangue. 

The pay-Ore occurs at irregular intervals throughout the vein in shoots, which are lenticular 
in shape and generally pitch to the south with their longer axes disposed in directions more nearly 
approaching the vertical than the horizontal. It is said that payable values, even in the shoots, are 

invariably confined to the foot-wall portion of the lode 

3 ondary enrichment has taken place to a remarkable extent, and is largely responsible tor the 
exceedingly rich bonanzas that have from time to time been found. These, as might be expected, 
were particularly common near the surface, in the flat-lying portions of the reef-system, and in places 
where contortion had produced minor svnclines in the formation. Secondary enrichment, caused 
by descending meteoric waters, is evidenced by the films of gold found on rleavage-surfaces ol the more 
solid quartz and in conjunction with the mullock occurring as partings in the more rubblv or brecciated 


It is probable that the secondary enrichment was conditioned mainly by weathering and denuda- 
tion of the upper portions of the vein-syBtem. As the surface portions of the veins were removed the 
gold was dissolved, perhaps V » \ ferric sulphite derived from the oxidati I pyrit . and carried down- 
ward into a lower zone, where it was re pi ccipit .1 1 ed by the carbonaceous matter contained in the lode 
and the adjoining country, or by reducing-solutions owing their formation to this mat; rial. 

The precipitating medium may well have been ferrous sulphate, derived partly from reduction 
of the ferric sulphate contained in the descending surface waters, partly from oxidation of pyrite present 
in the vicinity. 

Th' Aorangi [Golden Blocks) Mine. — The mine-workings are located some 11 chains south of the 
northern boundary of the Aorere Survey District and on the steep eastern slopes ol the Golden Ridge, 


which here attains a local relief of about 450 ft.* Access to the mine-workings is afforded by adit levels. 
The No. 1 level intersects the reef at a vertical depth of about 50 ft. below its outcrop. At vertical 
distances of 31 ft. and 133 ft. respectively below this adit come No. 2 and No. 3 levels, the latter being 
slightly above the level of Slaty Creek, which skirts the foot of the ridge. The strata are inclined 
at fairly high angles to the west, the dip becoming greater as the formation is followed southward. A 
glance at the accompanying plan of the mine-workings will at once show this feature. In portions 
of No. 1 level driven on the vein the argillites exhibit the decidedly bleached appearance which is very 
apparent on the outcrop. Lower down, however, they assume their usual coal-black appearance. 
The essential characteristics of the vein in this mine are those cited in the general description of the 
whole mineralised zone. The richest portion of the vein occurred between the outcrop and No. 1 
level, a fact highly suggestive of secondary enrichment by the action of descending meteoric waters. 
The stoped ground indicating where gold has been obtained is shown on the accompanying plan in 
single and cross hachures. the latter showing the positions and extent of the valuable pay-shoots. These 
shoots will be seen to follow a fairly well-defined course extending from the surface and gradually pitch- 
ing to the south. 

The gold in the ore of this mine is, as already indicated, in the main, fairly coarse, but it 
appears to become much finer in depth, still being associated with the iron-sulphides. Native 
copper is occasionally seen, but always in the non- auriferous quartz. A well-marked feature 
accompanying the vein-formation in one portion of the underground workings of the northern 
part of the mine is the well-polished slickensided face which the hanging-wall of the actual ore- 
body exhibits. 

The width of the ore-body varies from zero up to about 5 ft., and the accompanying plan shows 
approximately the amount stoped. Metallurgical treatment is confined to the ordinary crushing and 
amalgamation processes. The higher-grade ore returned as much as 6 oz. of bullion to the long ton, 
worth about £3 15s. 6d. per ounce. In all, 18,745 oz. of gold, valued at £70,784, have been won from 
this mine. 

The Anthill Mine, as previously stated, lies about half a mile to the north of the Aorangi, thus 
falling within the Pakawau Survey District and outside of the Parapara subdivision. The reef here 
outcrops on the top and sides of a conical hill lying slighth to the east of the main axis of the ridge. 
Work has been carried on from three main levels, with intermediates at regular intervals. In these 
workings the strata are not so highly inclined as in the Aorangi, the westerly dip averaging about 48°. 
From No. 2 level upwards the argillites show the bleached nature characteristic of those in the upper 
portions of the Aorangi. Similarly, the richest of the vein-material was found to occur in these por- 
tions, particularly in close proximity to the surface, again pointing to secondary enrichment of the 
vein by descending solutions. Beneath No. 2 level the unbleached coal-black argillites were encoun- 
tered ; immediately the gold- values decreased, and at greater depths appear to have given out almost 
entirely. The ore from this mine proved in places exceedingly rich, and gold to the value of over 
£17.000 has been won from this portion of the vein-formation. 

The Golden Ridge Mine. — This mine lies on the western slope of the ridge, about a quarter of a mile 
to the north of the Anthill. Here the vein is exposed in an almost horizontal bench on the precipitous 
flanks of the ridge, at an elevation of 990 ft.* above sea-level, or 850 ft.* above the bed of Coffee Creek, 
which flows along the base of the ridge. Work has been carried on from a main adit level and subsidiary 
levels along the vein-horizon. The dip of the strata here exposed everywhere approaches horizontality. 
In one place it is quaquaversal, or dipping in every direction of the compass, thus forming a minor 
dome in the main synclinal system already mentioned. Elsewhere the synclinal system is continued 
in the usual manner. 

The bleached state of the argillites which accompamed the high-grade ores mined in this locality 
is a striking feature in the Golden Ridge Mine. Mention should be made of the peculiar position 
occupied by the richest portion of the ore. This occurred in a depression roughly annular when viewed 
in plan, surrounding the minor dome to which reference has already been made. 

* These heights are barometric. 

To accompany Bulletin N° 3 







Scale of Feet 

h i ' i I I | 

Stoped ground Shown thus E3 

Pay shoots 

By Authority : John Mai.ltay, uouernojtnt Printer, 

2.300-7/07- 9-69 


The easterly workings which extended beyond the dome, along the edge of the ordinary synclinal 
svstem. penetrated a more highly inclined portion of the bedded formation, but, on the vein itself giving 
out, work in this direction was suspended. 

New Find Mine. — The workings of the New Find Mine occupy a position about 7 chains to the north- 
west of the Golden Ridge Mine, and are at a slightly lower elevation on the main synclinal structure. 
The beds occurring in this locality with the enclosed vein-formation have only a slight inclination to 
the south-west. Conditions of structure, as well as of bleaching and enrichment, resembling those 
obtaining in the Golden Ridge Mine, exist in the New Find Mine. A minor anticline on the major 
synclinal limb, pitching slightly to the south, gives rise on each side of its axis to shallow synclinal troughs 
in the bedded system. These when viewed in plan, present a fork-shaped outline, and it was from 
these troughs that the more highly enriched portion of the vein-material was extracted. The conditions 
therefore are somewhat similar to those described as occurring around the dome in the Golden Ridge 

From the description given by old miners of the mode of occurrence of the gold in the ore from 
the Golden Ridge Mine and the New Find .Mine, it would seem that secondary enrichment was at least 
partly responsible for the presence of the shoots of gold in these two mines. 

Other Workings : Old Golden Ridye. — The workings of the Old Golden Ridge Mine lie at an elevation 
of about 760 ft.* above sea-level, on the western slope of the Golden Ridge, some 15 chains to the north 
of the Golden Ridge Mine. Access to the vein has been obtained by means of several drives, which, 
however, have for the most part fallen in, rendering inspection impossible. There is, however, suffi- 
cient evidence, that at this point the strata, though lying on the whole at a fairly low angle, are some- 
what contorted. Gold to the value of £22,000 is said to have been obtained from this portion of 
the vein-system, some of the ore, it is said, yielding as high as 41 oz. of bullion to the ton. On the 
\ein-stuft pinching out, attention was turned to the highly brecciated, recemented surface debris from 
the gossan of the reef, locally known as " cement." It is stated that this attained a thickness of 40 ft. 
in places, and yielded on an average 6dwt. of gold to the ton. This "oemenl " being finally worked 
out, the company turned it- attention to the adjacent workings of the Morning Star Company. 

Morning star Mine. — This mine lies about 10 chains to the north-east of the Old Golden Ridge 
Mine, at an elevation of about 750 ft.* above sea-level. Inspection was rendered impossible by the 
state of the workings, but the mine-plans show the strata to dip at a very low angle to the south-west. 
During mining operations lair results were obtained i<>r BOme time, in all £1,650 over and above work- 
ing-expenses being returned to the company. The pinching-out of the vein-matter, as in other cases, 
caused suspension of the work. 

On the slopes of Conical Hill, west of the Anthill workings, and at a point 5 chains to the south 
of the local store, a small isolated lenticular mass of quarts was discovered. This was not connected 
in any way with the main vein-system, to which it held a somewhat parallel course. From this vein 
a small amount of good stone, averaging 3 oz. of gold to the ton. was obtained. To the south of the 
Aorangi Mine outcrops of the principal reef-system are occasionally encountered. Upon some of those 
appearing in the branches of Sandhill Creek a considerable amount of prospecting-work has been done, 
so far, however, without any favourable results. Still further southwards a possible continuation of 
the reef-system has been found by officers of the survey near the head of a small right-hand branch 
of the Anatori River, about a quarter of a mile below the junction of this river with Independent Creek. 
Here a quartz reef, averaging 4 ft. 6 in. in width, and having a dip of 63° to the east, is probably 
referable to the main reef-formation. A sample from this assayed 22 gr. of gold and 8 gr. of silver to 
the ton. Prospecting- work on the vein-quartz in this locality might be warranted. 

Outcrops of quartz also occur in the low-lying country to the south-west of the Golden Ridge 
area falling within the Paturau and Wakamarama Survey Districts, and beyond the limits of 
the present work. Here the truncated edges of the strata in the more flat-lying portion of the syncline 
are exposed in the stream-valleys, and the reef-system is said to be distinctly traceable, following the 
contour of the country in a southerly direction, for miles.t Below these outcrops the stream-gravels 

•These heights are barometric. | Park. Geol. Rep.. No. 20, 1890, p. 59. 


have frequently been found to be highly auriferous, thus apparently showing the continued gold- 
bearing nature of the reef-system in this direction. In places the vein-material itself, occasionally 
carrying good values, has been found, but is never continuous for any great distance. Within the 
area under consideration some good alluvial gold has been found near the head of Malone Creek, just 
below the stratum of quartzitic grauwacke which has been shown to overlie the reef-system. Careful 
search along the base of the outcrop of this stratum may therefore reveal the existence of auriferous 
quartz. Lower down, owing to undulations of the strata, the reef-formation has probably been cut 
through by Friday Creek, a branch of Sandhill Creek, and it is at this point that one of the first finds 
of auriferous quartz in this district was made. Here an isolated rock-mass is said to have occurred, 
enclosing auriferous vein-quartz, from which gold to the value of about £2,500 was recovered. 

Near the headwaters of Jimmy Creek, a branch of Slaty Creek, to the east of the Golden Ridge. 
in isolated boulder of quartz richly impregnated with gold is said to have been picked up many years 
ago. Though extensive prospecting has been carried out in this neighbourhood in order to discover its 
/oats, the parent vein has never been found. 

General < 'onclusions. — It will be observed from the foregoing that payablv auriferous quartz has 
been won from the Taitapu reef-system at intervals over an area having a length of one and a quarter 
miles along the trend of the main ridge. In this area remunerative returns have been obtained through- 
out a vertical range of at least 450 ft., the highest pay-outcrop having occurred at an elevation of 
1,200 ft.* in the Aorangi section, while the. lowest payablv auriferous quartz was won from the mine- 
workings of the Morning Star at an elevation of 750 ft,* The isolated patch of quartz found in the lower 
branch of Sandhill Creek, three-quarters of a mile to the west of this line of payable ore, is probably 
referable to the same auriferous formation. A consideration of these occurrences, together with the 
fact that prospects have been obtained from various veins over a considerably wider range of country, 
and that the alluvium of many of the streams incising the area is auriferous, leads to the general con- 
clusion that that particular bed in which the vein- formation occurs has a considerable vertical and 
lateral extension. It has been shown that pay-ore occurs both where the strata are highly inclined 
and also where they are practically horizontal, but the erratic disposition of the vein-quartz and of 
the actual auriferous content renders it impossible to say where remunerative ground may or may 
not exist. 

It has never been definitely proved, however, that ore, comparable in value with that obtained from 
the upper portion of the zone of weathering, exists in the more deeply lying, unbleached black argillites, 
although payable ore containing in general comparatively fine gold is now being mined from the lower 
levels of the Aorangi Mine. The ore-shoots in this mine, moreover, show some indications of continuing 
to greater depths than at present exploited, in the direction of their southerly pitch, so that the results 
of any future operations conducted in the southern section below the No. 3 Aorangi level should have 
a direct bearing on the wbole field. Only systematic prospecting can determine whether shoots of 
payable ore other than those already exploited exist in the mineralised zone on horizons corresponding 
with those already worked. Adits are at present being driven on the black argillite-forrnation in which 
the zone occurs, in the ridge south of the Aorangi Mine, in the hope of locating other possible auriferous 

It would seem that the area within which further prospecting operations are warranted is bounded 
to the eastward by a line running a little east of south from the Aorangi Mine. The flexures of the 
strata enclosing the vein-formation and the rough topography of portions of the area may afford out- 
crops in the more densely wooded and consequently little explored country lying westward from this 
line. The western limits of this area lie beyond the boundary of the Parapara subdivision. 

(b.) Veins of the Johnston's United to Red Hill Mineral Belt. 

The Johnston's United to Red Hill mineral belt lies in the north-eastern portion of the Aorere 
Survey District. It follows a general north-north-easterly line lying about a mile to the west of Para- 
para River, with which it has an approximately parallel course. 

* These heights are barometric. 


The quartz veins of this belt occur at or near the contact of black graphitic phyllites with an over- 
Lying serieitic schist, which passes into much- altered amphibolite schist. The rocks are disposed at fairly 
low angles with the horizon, and form upland country extending through trigonometrical stations B 
(1,251 ft.), L (908ft.), and A K (270 ft). This belt of country is incised more or less transversely by the 
headwaters of streams flowing nort h-west ward into the main Aorere River. In order from south to 
north, the valleys formed by the Wakefield. Bedstead. Cole. Mundic. Coppermine. Sluice. Light band, 
Dorothy, and Ward Creeks should be mentioned. 

Johnston's United Mine. The outcrop of trie Johnston's United vein appears on the saddle between 
Bedstead Gully and Decimal Cully, on the northern side of Wakefield Creek. Quartz here shows for a 
width of 18 in., but in its south-eastern extension it varies much In width owing toils lenticular 
structure, and is said to have attained a width of 15 ft. in places. 

Access to the workings of the Johnston's United Mine is afforded by adit levels. The position 
of the vein with regard to the structure of the enclosing rock is well exhibited in an old open-cut. 
Greyish altered amphibolite schist here forms the hanging-wall rock, and somewhat schistose graphitic 
argillite that of the foot-wall. The effects of metasomatic action are here apparent, the aniphibolites 
having been altered to a highly pyritic sericite schist, while the argillites, owing to tin' reducing-action 
of their graphitic constituent, are also highly pvrihsed. Differential rock-movement is recorded by 
the well-slickensided face- and the plastic finely comminuted rock-material occurring in the plane of 

A large amount of hvdrous iron-oxide is visible in the drives of the Johnston's United, and is 
especially conspicuous in the lowest level in Decimal Gully, where it in places almost completely fills 
the old workings. At the mouth of the level miniature terraces of this material are being deposited. 

Mining operations revealed the presence of three distinct zones in this vein with the usual transi- 
tions from one to another. The zone of gossan extended from the actual outcrop on the east of the 
hill to a considerable depth, and presented a rustv-grev. porous, brecciated appearance. This easily 
mined material, which was worked from an open-cut, was at one place highh auriferous, yielding gold 
to the value of £1.500 from a very small tonnage. 

Below the gOSSanous portion a rich sulphide zone was met with, much of the ore returning 2 to 
3 oz. of gold per tou. Here the quartz gangue contains granular pyrite interspersed with bunches of 
galena, sphalerite, and possibly tetrshedrite {var. richmondite). An analysis ol a sample of mixed 

ore showed the presence of 142 per cent, of galena and 331 pel cent, of sphalerite, with a silver content 
of 3 oz. 9 dwt. 7 gr. per ton. 

It is said that throughout the workings the richest gold occurred where certain small cross-veins 
intersected the main ore-body, anil generally on the foot-wall. 

The company's low level driven from Decimal Cully and intersecting the vein at 215 ft. below its 
highest outcrop, shows 18 in. of quartz, in which occurs pyrite, to the general exclusion of galena, 
sphalerite, and the other sulphides met with above, thus constituting a third zone characterized by 
what may be termed the lean sulphides. The gold and silver content of the ore is here very low, 
rendering its extraction unreinunerative. Work was continued here recently for a few months in the 
hope of payable values being again encountered, hut apparently without BUCCe 

The conditions briefly indicated as obtaining in the case of the Johnstons United vein afford strong 
support to the theory of secondary enrichment, due to the action of descending meteoric waters, and 
on this account the chances of obtaining ore in the lower levels comparable with the rich vein-stone 
of the upper portions of the mine do not appear very favourable. 

Prospecting to the northward, along the line of contact between the graphitic phyllites and the 
amphibohtic serieitic schists, would be apparently warranted, where it is possible new bonanzas, like 
that of Johnston's United, may yet be discovered. 

The Opkir Mine. — The Ophir Mine, located on the south side of Cole Gully at an elevation of 905 ft.* 
above sea-level, lies somewhat to the east of the contact-line which the main mineral-belt pursues, and 
is entirely in an altered amphibolite. The lode operated upon has a maximum width of about 7 ft., 

* Barometric height. 


but is very irregular, and is characterized by the " makes " and " breaks " common to these lenticular 
ore-bodies. The vein exhibits, to a slight degree, a rusty gossanous appearance, and contains a minor 
amount of pyrite and a little chalcopyrite, with its oxidation-product malachite. 

The ore mined is said to have returned about 5 dwt. of gold per ton. with a trifling amount of silver. 
The mine is at present closed down. 

The Phoenix Mine. — The Phoenix Mine, located on the north-eastern side of Cole Gully, shows a 
vein some 6 ft. to 8 ft. wide, striking north 55° east, and traversing amphibolite schist almost at its 
contact with the carbonaceous phyllites. The ore contained gold in a very finely divided state, and 
was considered to be of a very low grade. In Mundic Gully, which enters Cole Gully on its north- 
eastern side, a drive, now inaccessible, is said to have shown a pyrite band 4 ft. in width, and to some 
extent auriferous. This is probably referable to the same line of mineralisation as the Phoenix vein. 
This mine was worked for a few years only, and was then abandoned. 

Coppermine Creek Mine. — Following the same structural contact-line further northward a cupri- 
ferous vein is found to exist in Coppermine Creek. This vein is said to range in thickness from 
12 in. to 15 in., and consists of a quartz gangue, in which occur chalcopyrite, erubescite, and some 
pyrite. The lode was worked to a slight extent some years ago, but operations were suspended 
owing to the ore becoming poorer in depth. At present the old workings are all filled in and over- 

The Redhill Mine. — In this locality quartz stringers, some of which were auriferous, are reported 
to have been discovered on the surface, and for some time extensive, but unsuccessful, exploration 
was carried out in order to locate their further extension.* 

(c.) Veins of the Richmond Hill Area. 

The Richmond Hill area, as will be noted from the historical section of Chapter ii, attracted con- 
siderable attention as far back as 1873 by the discovery in the locality of rich silver-ore. Owing, how- 
ever, to the capital of the original company becoming exhausted no work has been done on the pro- 
perty for many years past. At present the workings are overgrown, and it is impossible to obtain 
a satisfactory idea of the veins occurring ; accordingly most of the remarks here given are culled from 
earlier writers. 

The argentiferous quartz veins are situated on the eastern flanks of Richmond Hill, which rises 
from the left bank of the Parapara River just above a conspicuous bend in its course. The veins occur 
in what appears to be a basic segregation in an altered gneissoid feldspar porphyry, and in places carry 
pyrite, chalcopyrite, argentiferous galena, and richmondite, the last practically a tetrahedrite with 
accessory constituents. 

According to Cox,f three approximately parallel veins, having a general meridional strike, with 
a very steep inclination to the east, are expoped. The first of these, a vein having a width of about 
2 ft., but splitting up at its outcrop into two leaders, occurs on the western bank of the river. The 
second vein appeals on the eastern bank of the river at a distance of about 30 ft. to the east of No. 1. 
and is 1 ft. wide, thinning out in its vertical extension. The gossans of these two lodes appearing on 
the banks above presented a peculiar rusty- greenish colour, and were of a somewhat porous nature, 
that of the principal vein, which first attracted attention, standing out as a roughly conical-shaped 
prominence. The third vein outcrops on the bank of the river still further to the east of the main lode. 
This vein, though of considerable size where exposed in the river-bank, breaks up in vertical extension 
into small stringers, which disappear when traced to higher elevations. 

Further to the north, beyond the low spur round which the river bends, a vein probably identical 
with No. 1 is seen on the river-bank. This carries a good gossan, and the country rock in close 
proximity is traversed by thin streaks of galena. 

In connection with the mining operations conducted here, a shaft was sunk on the hue of strike 
of the main No. 1 lode at a point distant 40 ft. in a direction a little east of south from the outcrop. 

* For information concerning the Red Hill district see also Geol. Rep. No. 20, 1890, p. 45. 
t Geol. Reports, No. 9, 1877; No. 10, 1877; and No. 14, 1882. 


At a depth of 56 ft. the lode was encountered, and along this a drive was carried for a distance of 38 ft. 
in a northerly direction. In this drive values were carried for the first 26 ft., beyond which the lode- 
matter proved barren. The shaft was then carried down in a vertical direction, and oft the line of the 
lode, for a further 50 ft., at which depth a crosscut was driven, intersecting the lode, which was here 
seen to be split by a horse. Along the lode at this depth a drive was carried for 23ft. in a northerly 
and 12 ft. in a southerly direction. 

Though fairly good ore appears to have been won from this drive work was discontinued here, 
attention being turned to the gossan. Upon this a shaft was sunk to a depth of 20 ft.. showing the 
lode-matter to be well defined throughout, the shoot of pay-ore which was carried down for 16 ft. 
appearing to pitch towards the north. This ore-shoot appears to have been characterized by the 
occurrence in considerable quantities of richmondite. which appeared in stringers 3 in. to Tin. in 

High values in silver, ranging from 2 oz. to 1.700 oz. to the ton.* were carried in this pav-shoot. 
Further down, 2 ft. of barren lode-matter was encountered, below which a fine-grained galena 
carrying 90 oz. of silver to the ton was met with, this being carried on to the bottom of the shaft, where 
it is said highly argentiferous richmondite again appeared. 

In the 56 ft. level the lode was well defined, averaging from 20 in. to 24 in. in thickness, and carrying 
strings of ore which varied in character, but consisted mainly of argentiferous galena, containing from 
40 oz. to 300 oz. of silver to the ton. 

Between the 56 ft. and 106 ft. levels the lode-matter is unknown. In the low level, however, 
the lode was found to be 5 ft. in width, and carried both pyrite and galena, the latter giving a silver 
content varying from 22 oz. to 51 oz. to the ton. 

Prospecting-crosscuts to the east from the 56 ft. level proved the existence oi a small pyritous 
lode carrying 13 oz. 13 dwt. 4 gr. of silver to the ton. 

On viewing the nature of the old workings, and on collecting information regarding the conditions 
which obtained in the lower horizons of the veins, it would appear that mining operations may have 
been rather prematurely abandoned. A gradually increasing width as greater depth was attained 
appears to have characterized the vein operated on below the outcrop, a feature which, with the appli- 
cation of more modern mining and metallurgical methods, would in part compensate for the partial 
falling-off in the values. Prospecting might advantageously be carried on towards the south of the 
shaft, where as yet little exploration has been done. 

A complete analysis of the mineral richmondite, made by Mr. \V. Skey, late Colonial Analyst, is 
as follows f :— 

Sulphide of lead 
Sulphide of antimony 
Sulphide of bismuth 
Sulphide of copper. . 
Sulphide of iron 
Sulphide of zinc 
Sulphide of silver . . 
Sulphide of manganese 

Its mineralogical characters have been described by the same gentleman. f 










(d.) Veins of the Slate River and its Tributaries. 

In the courses of the Slate River and its tributaries. Snows and Rocky Rivers, veins of quartz 
are of frequent occurrence. Of these by far the greater number are small, averaging from 2 in. to 4 in. 

* Cox, Geol. Rep. No. 14, 1882, p. 13. 

t Twelfth Annual Report of the Colonial Museum and laboratory, 1878, p. 31. 

7 — Karatnea. 


in width, but a few are of such thickness and longitudinal extent as to be worthy of note, even though 
assay returns have proved them valueless at the outcrops examined. 

In Slate River a prominent vein occurs about four miles and three-quarters from the head of 
the river, exposed in both banks beneath a 4 ft. fall, and is traceable for about 45 yards. It 
is not less than 15 ft. in width, has a strike of north 5° east, with a westerly dip of 80°, and 
intersects at a slight angle the bedding-planes of the enclosing rock, which is here a rather 
decomposed black graphitic argillite. This rock also occurs in thin sheets and inclusions in the 
actual vein-material. The quartz is whitish and opaque, breaks with a splintery fracture into 
angular fragments, and is very hungry in appearance. Analyses of the vein- quartz gave negative 
results for gold and silver. 

Further down the Slate River, half a mile above Fletcher Creek junction, is a vein-formation 15 ft. 
in width, continuous along the bed of the river for some 2 or 3 chains. It consists of a series of poorly 
defined, roughly parallel stringers, following the bedding of the country rock, a highly indurated black 
argillite. As in the last case, the quartz is lacking in metalliferous contents, assays for gold and silver 
giving negative results. 

Near the divide between Slate and Snows Rivers, one mile to the south-east of Mount Hardy, 
a very prominent reef is exposed, with a maximum width of about 80 ft. It strikes north-east and 
south-west, dips 42° to the south-east, and is traceable along the slope for about 2 chains. The quartz 
is very white in appearance, and yielded no results when treated for the precious metals. 

In the country drained by the headwaters of Snows River several quartz veins of considerable 
dimensions are seen to outcrop. In most of these cases the vein-material was decidedly unfavourable 
in appearance, and analyses gave no results for gold and silver. 

In Bray Creek, one of the higher branches of Snows River, the conglomerates and grauwackes 
of the Haupiri Series here encountered contain ramifying stringers^of quartz and puggy material, 
varying in width from a few inches to 3 ft. Analyses of samples selected from the various stringers 
by officers of the Survey either gave negative results for gold and silver or showed these metals to exist 
only to the extent of a few grains per ton. High values, however, were obtained from a quartz-sample 
submitted by a prospector in the area, and said to come from a point*~where several small veins 

About three miles down Shows River, on its left-hand side, a quartz vein appears at the contact 
between a banded purplish argillite and a basic igneous rock. The vein strikes north 9° east and dips 
eastward at an angle of 25°. This vein near the level of the stream is 9 in. wide, increasing to 2 ft. 6 in. 
higher up the bank. In its vertical extension, however, some 15 ft. above the level of the stream, 
it is terminated by a conspicuous joint-plane. Leaders from the main vein continue along this joint- 
plane in both directions, striking nearly parallel with the stream-bed (north 75 c east). In width these 
leaders vary from a few inches to 16 in., wedging' out in the down-stream direction. Up-stream surface 
debris conceals their further extension. An assay sample from the main lower vein gave the following 

result : — 

Value per Ton. 
Dwt. gr. s. d 

Gold . ., .. .. . .. .. 2 12 10 

Silver . . . , . . . . . . . . ..213 03 

Total value . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 

The upper leader is much more highly mineralised, in places consisting almost entirely of greenish 
pyrite, coarsely or finely crystalline. The wall-rocks also show the same mineralisation. An analysis 
of the vein-material at the point of exposure gave 1 dwt. 5 gr. of gold and 15 gr. of silver per ton, or 
an approximate value per ton of 4s. 10d. 

From the auriferous nature of the vein-material in each case, and the mineralised appearance 
of the enclosing rocks, prospecting operations at this point are warranted. 

* See also Chapter vi, under the heading " Special Area," 







i pei 


1 Ton. 








A little lower down the river a 5 in. rusty-coloured vein., carrying 15 gr. of gold and 5 gr. of silver 
to the ton, outcrops on the left bank of the river. 

In Rocky River a 6 in. bedded vein occurs about a quarter of a mile above the mouth of Mac- 
kenzie Creek. A sample submitted by a prospector gave, on analysis : — 

Gold . . . . ii . . . . 


Total value . . . . . . . . 1 10 6 

This vein appears on the east side of the river, striking south 30° east, and dipping 35° east-north- 
east, and is also exposed in a race-cutting near some old sluicing-works. 

On the spur between Rocky River and' Maori Gully, about 28 chains from the main spur along 
which the track from Boulder Lake to the Castles runs, and at a height of 1,420 ft. above sea-level, 
a bedded reef varying in width from 3 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in., known as Dahl's Reef, outcrops in a country 
rock of light-grey phyllite. The reef strikes north 45° west, and has a north-easteriy dip of 35°. The 
quartz, which is generally opaque and vitreous, is in places highly mineralised, patches of arsenopvrite 
occurring with occasional segregations of pyrite. The reef is traceable in a Bouth-easterly. direction 
for about I chain, in which direction its further extension is concealed. An! analysis of quartz from 
this reef shows it to carry 14 gr. of gold and 1 oz. 13 dwt. 10 gr. of silver to the ton. 

Near the head of Fletcher Creek, one of the Lower right-hand branches of Shite River, a L' in. vein 
following the bedding-planes <<\ the enclosing phyllitee was located. Analyses indicated a content of 
2 dwt. 4 gr. of gold and 23 gr. of silver pel ton. \ alued approximately at 8s. 9d. per ton. 

(e.) Veins of Little koulder River. 
Near the head of Little Boulder River several large veins occur, which, though highly impregnated 
with coarsely and finely crystalline pyrite, are devoid of precious metals. One of these. 6 ft. in width, 
is traceable for about 75 ft. in a north-westerly direction as a vertical wall along the western bank of 
the river. The quartz is either opaque, milky-white, or somewhat vitreous, and is Bometimea rather 
niullocky. About a quarter of a mile lower down another of these veins, some 10 ft. in thickness, is 
traceable up the western hank in a south-westerly direction for 50 yards. The quartz in this case is 
much like the last, though possessing a faint bluish tinge. 

(/.) Veins of Boulder River. 

The only vein worthy of note in the Boulder River is to be seen about a mile and three-quarters 
above the junction of this river with the Aorere. It is a bedded vein, having an average width of 2 ft., 
and appearing for about 50 ft. along the left bank of the river. It has been subjected to considerable 
step-faulting, the rusty phyllites in which it occurs being decidedly disturbed at this point. The quartz, 
though heavily impregnated both with pyrite and arsenopyrite, afforded- samples which on analyses 
showed neither gold nor silver. 

(g.) Veins of the Quartz Ranges. 

At the Quartz Ranges, near the head of Fiimey Creek, a vein of bluish vitreous quartz containing 
pyrite is exposed for about 60 ft. in the bed-rock of the sluicing claim at present being worked in that 
locality. Tt is a bedded vein following the contact between a band of quartzite and black and grey 

Further to the south-east a large lode known as Washbourn's Reef is exposed on the track from 
the Aorere River to the Quartz Ranges, not far from the miners' dwellings. The vein, which is trace- 


able for about 40 ft., may be a continuation of the one just described. It lies at the contact between 
phyllite and quartzite. Numerous leaders enter from the hanging-wall of quartzite, though none 
join on the foot-wall side. Some years ago a level was driven on the vein, and richly auriferous patches 
are said to have been struck. Samples selected for assay by an officer of the Survey gave only 2 gr. 
of gold and 4 gr. of silver to the ton. Other veins and stringers in the vicinity of the Quartz Ranges 
are also characterized by quartz presenting a somewhat vitreous lustre, and containing a good deal 
of chloritic material in the fractures and partings. 

(h.) Veins of the Kaituna River and its Tributarifp. 

The valley of the Kaituna River lying to the north-west of the lower reaches of the Aorere River 
shows a few quartz veins of minor importance. In the Bonny Doon, a tributary entering the Kaituna 
from the west, the small quartz veins are fairly well mineralised with iron-sulphides, and appear at 
frequent intervals. An assay of quartz selected from a system of small intersecting veins about three- 
quarters of a mile from the head of the stream merely indicated their auriferous character, 22 gr. to 
the ton having been returned. 

(i.) Minor Veins of the Parapara River. 

Apart from the Richmond Hill area, already described, which represents a specialised occurrence, 
the Parapara River shows few veins worthy of notice. A small lode which at one time was exposed on 
the lower Parapara River is said to carry molybdenite, but, owing to the outcrop being now covered 
by debris resulting from sluicing operations, the officers of the Survey were unable to make a personal 
examination. Just above the junction of Macgregor Creek with the Parapara River occurs a seam of 
solid pyrite. ranging from 6 ft. to 8 ft. in thickness. This vein has a meridional strike, and is enclosed 
in the blue crystalline complex carbonates. Samples taken for analysis showed no trace of the 
precious metals. 

At the mouth of Dunlop Creek an ill-defined vein, 2 ft. 6 in. in width, in cherty grauwacke. shows 
a rusty outcrop. Upon this vein a little prospecting-work has been carried out. but without any 
satisfactory result. 

In Grueby Creek, about three-quarters of a mile above its mouth, a barren reef 4 ft. 6 in. in width 
occurs, while about half a mile from the head of the creek a barren irregular lode 4 ft. in width is 

(/.) Ore-occurrence of the Pariwhakaoho River Valley. 

In Copperstain Creek, a tributary of the Pariwhakaoho River, a well-defined mineralised zone 
occurs, running in a general north-and-south direction, and traceable for about 12 chains. It may. 
and probably does, extend further to the southward. Its width is uncertain, since its boundaries are 
difficult to delineate with accuracy, though it probably does not exceed 50 ft. The zone occurs as a 
highly pyritised band of much altered and decomposed mica schist in conjunction with a micaceous 
carbonate, the mineralisation being most pronounced near the line of contact of the two rocks. Though 
the mineralising constituents consist for the most part of pyrite, chalcopyrite is also present, as well 
as its oxidation products — malachite, azurite, and possibly melaconite, which occur in the conspicuous 
limonitic gossan. Plates of native copper are occasionally seen along joint or foliation planes. Pro- 
specting-work has been carried out in a drive 40 ft. long in Copperstain Creek, about half a mile from 
its mouth, and shows the character of the mineralisation to be fairly constant. Throughout the rusty 
oxidized portion of the mineralised mica schist, seams of a hydrous silicate of alumina ramify in all 
directions. A picked sample of ore from the mouth of the drive contained — Gold. 4 gr. to the ton ; 
silver, 15 dwt. 5 gr. to the ton ; copper, 23-54 per cent. 

Age and Origin of Qdartz Veins. 

In the Parapara subdivision, as in most"areas consisting mainly of highly inclined sedimentary 
beds, varying from comparatively unaltered sediments to more or less highly metamorphic 


terrains, the great majority of the vein-fissures coincide more or less closely in direction. with the 
bedding-planes or the foliation-planes of the enclosing rocks. Most of the stresses and strains 
accompanying the foldings and movements of the rocks prior to the period of vein- formation appear, 
therefore, to have been relieved by the formation of fissures parallel to these normal structural 
planes, rather than by sharp breaks intersecting strata. Bedded veins presenting all the usual 
characteristics of such occurrences have therefore been formed, rather than true better-defined 

Faults of considerable magnitude do occur in the area ; their fissures, however, do not appear 
to have formed a lodgment for vein-material, but there is no evidence to show whether the faulting 
actually antedated or postdated the period of vein-formation. 

The assignment of an age to the quartz veins of the area would be highly speculative. Some of 
the veins are enclosed in argillites and grauwackes, which constitute the undoubted Ordovician section 
of the Aorere Series, while none are known to occur in the highly unconformable rocks of the Oamaru 
Series. It might, therefore, be inferred that the vein-forming period was pre- Tertiary, but even 
this general statement is open to doubt. 

Two distinct types of metalliferous deposits can be recognised : — 
(a.) Veins in which the gangue is quartz. 

(6.) Zones of strata more or less impregnated with metallic sulphides and native metals, and 
showing little or no secondary quartz. 

The former class ranges from veins consisting almost entirely of barren quartz to veins in which 

the quartz is associated with certain of the following sulphides and native metals in greater or lesser 

proportions : Pvrite. mareasite. chalcopyrite, richmondite, gold, silver, and copper. The veins of 

this class, though to some extent veins of tilling, often have the characteristics of replacement lodes. 

It has been shown that certain of the veins in the upper horizons, of which mixed sulphides 

iated with gold and silver occur, are said to have shown in the deeper mine-workings only pyrite 

—ociation with the quartz. It is hazardous, therefore, in dealing with an area which has been 

subjected to such great denudation, to attempt to base any separation or a»e-signification simply on 

mineral associations in the vein-material, and as structural evidence is not apparent no such attempt 

has been made. 

It is sufficient to remark that intrusive rock-, ranging from the andesitic type to the ultra-basic 
type, are of fairly widespread occurrence in the area, and to the eruptive ■'afteractions." resulting 
from the injection of certain of these magmas into the strata, the formation of the ore-deposits may 
possibly be referred. 

The secondary enrichment of certain of the ore-bodies by descending meteoric waters has already 
been referred to in earlier sections of this chapter, and, had space permitted, the various accom- 
panying phenomena might have been described at much greater length. It need only be added that 
the appearances observed are in nearly all cases satisfactorily explained by the theories of secondary 
enrichment, which have of late years been so ably stated by leading economic geologists, both in the 
United States and elsewhere. 





Metalliferous Veins and Deposits other than Iron- 
Alluvial Gold 




Building and Ornamental Stones 

.. 104 



.. 104 

Lime a-<d Cement . . 

.. 104 


' .'oal 

.. 104 



A perusal of the foregoing chapters will show that the Parapara subdivision, comprising in all about 
243J square miles of country, contains many features of economic interest. Valuable timber is to 
be found in the dense forests with which the higher parts of the area are in general covered, while in the 
swampy grounds on the low-lying parts native flax in places grows luxuriantly. In parts, particularly 
in the broad valleys of the main rivers, wide stretches of country exist in which the soil is rich and 
fertile, and the land well adapted for agricultural and pastoral purposes. In places small areas of 
fertile land, still forest-clad, are awaiting the axe of the pioneer settler. 

Undeveloped water-power is to be seen in the various rivers and streams descending rapidly from 
the high levels to the sea-coast. 

The mineral wealth of the subdivision, in which the Geological Survey is especially interested, 
shows great variety as well as much of value. It may be discussed under the headings of — iron-ore, 
metalliferous veins and deposits other than iron-ore, alluvial gold, building and ornamental stones, 
clays, lime and cement, and coal. 


By far the greatest economic mineral asset of the Parapara subdivision is in iron-ore. This materia 1 
occurs in deposits of greater or less size in almost every portion of the western and central parts of the 
subdivision. However, only those deposits outcropping along a belt of crystalline complex carbonate 
rock (generally called crystalline limestone) stretching southward from Parapara Inlet are of great 
economic importance. There are three distinct large deposits along this belt. The most northern 
is in that portion of the Waitapu Survey District known as Washbourn Block ; the second appears 
on the Tukurua Block ; while the most southerly is in the Onakaka Block. The ore of all three is 
apparently the result of oxidation of ferrous carbonate. The main source of the metallic constituent 
of the ferrous carbonate is to be found in pyrite. The latter has been oxidized to ferrous sulphate, 
and this salt has reacted with the calcium and magnesium carbonates to give ferrous carbonate and 
other more soluble salts. 

The general quality of the ore in the three blocks is high, Washbourn Block, however, showing 
ore of higher grade than either of the other areas. The impurities present — phosphorus, sulphur, &c. — 
do not generally occur in serious quantities. Mineralogically considered, the ore is mainly limonite, 
though partly gothite and possibly turgite. 

The quantity of ore in the three blocks is enormous. It is impossible to estimate the exact amount 
of ore on any of the blocks, since no operations beneath the surface have as yet been conducted. A 
rough estimate of the amount of ore showing on the surface of Washbourn Block gave 22,691,762 tons. 
The amount of ore in this one block may be much greater, and it is not likely to be less. 

The ore-bodies of the three blocks are all in very accessible localities — being nowhere more than 
a few miles from the sea-shore. 

The world's supply of high-grade iron-ores is rapidly decreasing, owing to the enormous annual pro- 
duction of iron necessitated by modern methods of construction. It has been estimated by very good 


* * - ■■* S2 . -r £' X 





authorities that, at the present rate of iron-consumption, within fifty years the world's visible supply 
of ores now considered sufficiently high grade to be employed for manufacture will be exhausted. In 
view of these considerations the value of the immense deposits of iron-ore at Parapara cannot be 
doubted, and the day does not swni far distant when this great store of mineral wealth will be utilised. 

Metalliferous Veins and Deposits other than Iron-ore. 

Veins occur in almost every part of the Parapara subdivision wherever Palaeozoic rocks are exposed ; 
but few of them carry values. Mineral deposits not occurring in definite veins, with the exception 
of those of iron-oxides, are rare. The wide range of metallic contents which is represented is, however, 
remarkable. A small vein on the lower Parapara River, now covered by tailings, is said to carry molyb- 
denite ; tht mineralised zone in Copperstain Creek carries copper-ores ; the Richmond Hill Silver-mine 
and the Johnston's United Mine carry lead, zinc, antimony, silver, gold, and other metals The quartz 
veins at the Golden Ridge, some of which are now being mined, are auriferous and argentiferous, as 
are also smaller veins in Snows River, in Brav Creek, in Slate River, in Rocky River, and elsewhere. 

The copper-ores in Copperstain Creek occur in a pyritised zone, which also carries small values 
in both gold and silver. The zone is somewhat extensive, and. though the amount of material showing 
values in copper and the precious metals in the part exposed is not great, vet careful prospecting along 
the zone elsewhere may reveal a deposit of commercial importa i 

It seems possible that the richlv argentiferous lode of Richmond Hill, which excited some public 
attention at the time of its discovery towards the end <>f the year 1873, may yet be proven to carry 
ore in quantity. The notable richness of the vein where the ore did appear seems to warrant pro- 
specting below the depth to which mining operations have so far been carried. 

The old Johnston's United Mine, the ore from which has given high values in both gold and silver, 
may be considered to have passed its best days, since, as will have been seen in the foregoing chapter, 
the values occurred in an upper enriched zone, which has now been worked out. However, it seems 
possible that ^explorations along the line of contact between the carbonaceous phyllites and 
sericitised amphibolites on which the Johnston's United mine occurs, may reveal other enriched 
sulphide deposits. 

Several auriferous and argentiferous veins have been discovered and worked in the past in the 
vicinity of the Golden Ridge. The Aorangi Mine, which is still working, has been the most produc- 
tive, yielding 18,745 oz. of bullion valued at £70,784. Very careful prospecting in this vicinity may 
lead to the discovery of new reefs, since auriferous erratics, of which the source is not known, have 
been found in various localitii 

The auriferous quartz stringers occurring in Bray (reek, a tributary of the upper Snows River, 
are too small to be considered of great value. .More important is a vein with branching leaders along 
a joint plane occurring in Snows River, about three miles below the junction of Bray Creek. The main 
reef, varying in width from 9 in. to 2 ft. 6 in., carries gold and silver to the value of 10s. 3d. per ton, 
while the very heavily pyritised leaders from 3 in. to 16 in. in width carry 1 dwt. 5 gr. of gold and 15 gr. 
of silver to the ton. Prospecting on this reef might reveal material carrying greater values. 

In Fletcher Creek, a branch of Slate River, a 2 in. vein carries 2 dwt. 4 gr. of gold and 23 gr. of 
silver to the ton. In Rocky River a 6 in. bedded vein has been found, carrying values in gold and silver 
representing £1 10s. 6d. a ton. Besides the auriferous veins mentioned a good many others carry 
smaller amounts of the precious metals. Considering the " specimen " nature, which seems to charac- 
terize the auriferous veins of the district it is not improbable that in some cases values which are not 
apparent at the outcrop may be found by exploration along the line of the reefs. 

Alluvial Gold. 

In the past great quantities of alluvial gold have been obtained from the quartzose conglomerate 
at the base of the Oamaru rocks, from the old river-gravels, and from the recent marine and fluvia- 
tile gravels. 'The last-named, which represent a reassortment of the quartzose conglomerate and of 
the old river-gravels, were much the richest, but have now been almost entirely worked out. The 


old river-gravels, though widely auriferous, are not often sufficiently rich to pay, although some of them, 
especially along the south-i-a^r side of the Aorere Valiey, might be made to yield good returns by 
.sluicing on a large scale ; but in this operation must he considered the great expense of bringing water 
into the field At the head of Snows River there is a considerable area of gravels stretching up the 
western bank between Specimen Creek and Bray Creek, which apparently contains a good deal of gold, 
though this point should be carefully investigated by much test-pitting before extensive sluicing opera- 
tions are undertaken. If definitely proven to be of value, water could be easily brought into the field 
from the head of Snows River. 

Most of the gold-bearing quartzose conglomerate has already been sluiced away. Some good 
patches, however, still remain, which may be expected to be remunerative — namely, at Appo's Flat, 
in the Parapara Flat, in front of Mr. H. Washbourn's house, and at Washbourn's Dam. 

Building and Ornamental Stones. 

Building and ornamental stones are widely distributed in the Parapara subdivision. Granites of 
high quality occur in many parts, especially on Lead Hill and on the Onahau Stream. All of these 
would be useful for masonry, while some of them are fit for finer purposes. Beautiful marbles occur 
at many places, sometimes pure white, sometimes pink, again grey. White marbles occur on the slopes 
of the Pikikiruna Range, near Blue Pond, and elsewhere. Grey marbles are much more widely dis- 
tributed, while the pink marble is limited to the upper Waikoromumu. 

Serpentinous rocks of considerable beauty and possibly fit for ornamental purposes occur on the 
Parapara River. The talc rocks near the Waikoromumu may, perhaps, be utilised for sinks, electrical 
switchboards, &c. 


Clays suitable for brickmaking appear in many parts of the subdivision, where the uppermost 
member of the Oamaru Series outcrops. Purer clays, capable of utilisation in the manufacture of 
pottery, are also found. Near the mouth of the Motupipi River a bed of siliceous clay adapted 
for making high-grade firebricks is reported to occur. 

Lime and Cement. 

In the deposits of limestone in the Oamaru rocks, widely exposed in the Parapara subdivision, 
the colony has a valuable asset. Excellent lime and cement have already been manufactured from the 
stone obtained from the Tata Islands, and from the coast-line in the vicinity. Millions of tons yet 
remain within easy access of deep water, and in close proximity to beds of marly clay, and await only 
capital and enterprise for development. This limestone is particularly suitable for use as a basic flux 
in metallurgical operations, and for this purpose that at Parapara Inlet is most conveniently situated 
in respect to the iron-ore deposit. 


Thin seams of brown coal, associated with the lowest beds of the Miocene strata, outcrop at several 
points near the Golden Ridge, at Rangihaieta Head, at Motupipi, and elsewhere in the Takaka Valley. 
The coal is, generally speaking, of low grade, being high in ash and sulphur. Coal of better quality 
than that now exposed may occur beneath the surface where the uppermost measures of the Oamaru 
rocks appear in the Takaka Valley and in the Aorere Valley. In the Aorere Valley north of Rockville, 
the possibilities of coal beneath the surface, where Oamaru rocks outcrop, seem especially hopeful, since 
on the Wakamarama Range to the north-west the upfaulted members of the Oamaru rocks — the equi- 
valents of those in the Aorere Valley — contain coal-seams. Boring operations for coal might be carried 
out in this locality with a reasonable hope of success. 


I N D E X 





Acidic igneous rucks . . . . 20, 2 


. 46 

. 70-73 

Bainham, Settlement of 

12, 25 

Age of 


1 'nek 


Contact phenomena o 

" '.'. 

7-2. 73 

to Castle's Track. Iron-ore on 


„ Distribution <>! 


Baldy, Mount 


Pebbles of 

46, 71 

Basic igneous rooks .. 20,21,22, 

<>3. 68-70, 73 

Petrology of . . 


Agt of 


Weathering ol 


Contact phenomena of 


Age "t acidic igneous rocks 


1 listribution of . . 


Aorere Series 


Petrology of 

r,s 70 

basic igneous rocks. . 


Bedstead Gully, Gold in 


H;ui])iri Series 


K. 1 1 h-foresl /one. lower 


Oamaru Series . . . .' 

49, ">1 



semi-basic rocks 




ultra-basic rooks 


Bibliography, general 

S 1(1 

ml origin of quartz veins 


of graptolites 

36 37 

Agglomerates, volcanic 

88, 69 



ilt lire 

:». 12 

Biotite schists 


Aiguille topography 




Alluvial gold, t lharacter ol 


Blast furnace 

s7. 88 

mining . . 15, 111. 1 7. 



(14. li.". 



fields .. -'. 15, 



64, 103 

Bombs, volcanii 


Alpine meadowland 



64, '.'I 



. 70, 73 

Bonny Doon Creek, \'<in- of 


Anatoki Goldfield 


Boring operatic 

88, 104 


27. 29 

Boulder clay 


Analyses, ohemical 58, 10, 56, 57, 58, 59, 



67, 68, 

Boulder Lake 

8, 30 

78, 80, 81. 83, M, 



88, 96, 



97, 100 

Boulder l!i\ er 


■ ■111 and aUvei . 

t [old in 


Andalusite-mica schists 

11. 73 

Veins of 



69, 7" 

l.itt lc. Vein- ot 


Animals, native . . 

2, 3 

Brandy Point, < (old at 


,, foreign 


Braj tuck. Auriferous glomerates of 


Anthill Mine 


. B9, 92 

Veins of 

'.is. HC, 

Aorangi (Golden Blocks) Mine 19, 


92, 103 

I'.i. i ■ las. fri, 1 ion . . 


,, .. .. Gold-produi 



Is. 103 

,, quartzitic 


Aorere River 

7. 27 


15, 68 

,, Gold in 

L5, 26 

Bret oiated struol are "i i ai bonates . . 




epidotic cherts 


Aorere Series 


. 33 t » 

,, iron- ore 


Age of 



. lid. I'd. lot 

Distribution of 


Bridal Veil Falls . . 

S3. 84 

Palaeontology of 


Broun River 

-'7. 50 


37 li 

Brui ite 


icture of 


Bubu Spring 


Aorere Survey District 


Buck Gully, Gold in 


Aorere Valley 


. 2 t 

19, 50 


Hi. lot 

,, Ancient 

24, -27 

Bungapore, Limes' one at . . 


Appo's ( reek, Cold in 

16, 64 

Bur- . Gold m 


Appo'a Flat 


. >i. B7 

Burnt Hill 


1 on-ore at 


Bush. Set Flora, timber, ftc. 

Appo's Gully, Iron-on- at . . 


Butte- .. 

. . 25, I'.i. :>7 

Apteryx (kiwi) 


described in Bulletin . . 



i >t ,n idic igneous bosses 

70, 71 

. special . . 17 in. 52- • "• • > . 75 


89 Itxi 

C ..dmaii. Sir A. ■!. 


\i g< ntiferous lodes 


97, 103 



ArgUlites .. .. .. 20, ! 

. 34 

. 44. 47 

Cape Farewell 

1. 26 

Arkose . . 


Carbonaceous argillites 

.. 33.34. II 



Carbonates, c implex 

37. :>4 

■ for gold and silver . . 4N. 54, 95, "7. 


00, 103 

Analyses of altered 




( Ihemical composil ion ot 


Assimilation of carbonates by acid igneous rocks 


Distribution of 


AuL'ite andeaite 


silic ified 

. . 30. 73. 78 

„ porphyrite 


,, Weathering of 


Auriferous leads in older and newer debris 

64, 65 

t 'at bona! ic cherts. . 


Auriferous ores. See Quartz veins, Ac. 

( Saptured drainage 


A/urite, Occurrence of 


les, Oamaru bods at 

.. 60, :»3. ..7 

8 — Karamea. 



. . 

31, 64 

( lave deposits 

63. 64 

Ceraeut . . 

1'... 102, 104 

,, (auriferous) 



96, 100, lol 

Chalybeate spring. . 


Cherty quartzites 

39, 7s 

Chiastolite schist . . 




Chlorite schists 

42, 67 

Chrome mica 

40, 42 



„ Analysis of 



63 i 

Clara Lake 

30 ] 

( 'larke River 



49, 50, 


56, 59, 60, 61 


34, 44 





Coal . . . . . . 53 



88, 102, 104 

Coal-bearing formation 


,, seams 

2, 49, 52, 55 

,, mining 

19, 56, 57, 61 

Coastal plains 




Coelenterata, fossil Tertiary 



57, 88 

Cole Gully, Gold in 


Collingwood Goldfield 


„ Goldfields Company 


Collingwood, Port of 


Communication, Means of . . 


Complex carbonates. See Carbonates. 



Concretions, calcareous 


Conglomerates, Haupiri 

46, 50 

„ Oamaru 


50, 52-55, 62 

„ recent. See Older and newer debris. 

„ quartzose . . 

52-55, 60, 62, 83, 86, 103 

Conglomerate ore (iron) 

. . 76, 78, 80 ; 

Contact metamorphism 

. . 67, 70, 72 




91,' 92, 


100. 101, 103 

Coppermine Creek Mine 




Copperstain Creek, Iron-ore of 


,, Copper of 




Correlation of Aorere Series 


., Haupiri Series 


„ Oamaru Series 

49, 51 



Cox, S. R. 

20, 71. 76. 96 

Crayfish, Fresh-water 






Cupriferous veins 



Dahl's Reel 


Dam Creek, Talc and serpentine 

rocks of 


Decimal Gold-mining Company 


Deer, Red 





22, 72 

Depression of land 



27, 54, 55, 62 

Devonian strata 

. . 20, 21, 45 



Dicotyledonous plants 


Didymograptus eodensus 


Differentiation, magmatic . . 


Differential movement of strata 

91, 95 

Discharge of streams 




Distribution of acidic igneous rooks. . 
Aorere Series 
basic and semi-basic igneous 

Haupiri Series 
„ newer debris 

., Oamaru Series 

., older debris 

., quartz veins 

„ ultra-basic igneous rocks 

Doctor Creek, Gold in 
Duck, blue, grey 
Dunlop Creek, Veins of 
Dynamic metamorphism . . . . 33, 34. 


Earthquakes in Aorere Valley 

Economic possibilities 2, 60-61, 64, 65. 74. 

See also Gold, iron-ore, quartz veins, &c. 

Economic possibilities of alluvial gold 

„ building and orna- 

mental stones 
,, clays 

„ coal-seams 

,, lime and cement 

., iron-ore 

,, metalliferous veins, &c. 

Economic reasons for work in Karamea 
,, interest, Special features of 

Effusive (volcanic) rocks 

Elevation of land. . . . ..21, 22, 

Ellis, John, Discovery of gold by 

Enrichment (secondary) of quartz veins 

Epidote . . 
,, rocks 
„ carbonate rocks 

Epidotic cherts 




Estuarine deposits 

Etheridge, R., jun. 





17. 64. 65 



66, 67 


37. 46. 72 


87-88. 94. 












23, 24. 62 



42, 68, 70 

68, 69, 73 







35, 36 

Fantail, black, pied 
Faulting. . . . 21, 23, 24, 27. 


Features of economic inteiest, Social 

Fell, C. Y. 

Ferration of carbonates 

Ferric sulphate 

Ferrous carbonate, Peroxidation of 

„ sulphate 
Flax .. .. ... 


Fletcher Creek, Auriferoas veins of 

Fletcher Creek, Iron-ore of 

Flora .. 

Flood plains 

Flowers' Sheep Track 

Fluviatile gravels 

Fluvio-marine gravels 

Fluxes for metallurgical operations . . 

Folding of strata 


Formations, Sequence of . . 

Forrester Creek, Gold in . . 

34, 50, 53, 54, 101 




. . 76. 77, 78 





61, 104 

. . 4. 13, 102 


99, 103 




13, 86 

. . 62. 64, 65 

62, 63 

. . 61, 88, 104 

21, 22, 34, 46 

3-5, 49 




Fossils . . 
Friction breccias 
Friday Creek 
Fuchsite. . 

21, 34-37, 38, 51-52, 59 



Gardiner Gully, Gold in 


General account of the structure of the several 

General information 
Geography, physical 
Geological history 
,, sequence 
Geology, Outline of 
Glaciers . . . . . . 1 . 22, 31 

,, Special features of 
Glengyle Gully 

., Iron-ore at 
„ Sluicing Claim 
(Men Mutohkin, Quartzose conglomerate at 
„ Sluicing Claim 

Goats, Wild 
Gold, alluvial 

Character of alluvial 
Discovery of 
„ dredging 

veins. See Veins. 
Gold-mining, Alluvial 2, I 

Quart/. 2, IT. is. I 

„ System of 

Golden Bay 

Former extension oi 
,, Streams entering 

Goldeu Blocks (Aorangi )Mine 
Golden Gully, Gold in 

Golden Ridge 

,, Mini- 


Graben (of Takaka Valley). 

,, Age of . . 



Graphite schists . . 


., Time distribution 
Literature of 

„ fluvio-marine 
,, marine 
,, morainic . . 
Grueby Creek, Iron-ore in 

„ Veins of 

Gypsum («eler>ite) 

Hall, T. S. 
Harris Ridge 
Haupiri conglomerate 
Haupiri Range 

50, 51 

■.:.. 56, B9 





>, 32. 62. 

:>3. I 







16, 17 



>, 60, 64 65 



17. 64, 65 

64, 65, 
89 96, 


18, 89, 90,91 



18, 89, 


87, 95, 96, 

83, s7 




. 53 















. 17 






. 58 




35. 36, 37 



63, 98 


7 1 . 72. 





62, 65. 


62. 63. 
:.i i. 55, 

Haupiri Series 

Age of 

Correlation of 
Distribution of 
Petrology of 
Special area of 
„ Structure of . . 

Heaphy Pack-track 

Hector, Sir James 

Hidden Treasure Track 

History of mining 

Hit-or-miss Sluicing Claim 

Hochstetter, F. von 

Homotaxis of Aorere rocks 


HopMnson, .J. 



Eorae (Richmond Hill lode) 

Hutchinson Quarry beds 

Button, K. W. '.. 

ll\ draulic sluicing 


us aotion 
Igneous rooks 




., ige i 'i 

( iontacl phenomena ol 

( 'lllitelit of 

Distribution of 
., Eoonomic possibilities 

IN i rology of 
- semi-basic 


Weal hexing of acidic 

[ndependenl ( 'nek 
Indicator of gold ( marcasite) 
Iridium . . . . 

Iron, metallic 
Iron, |ii L ', Analysis 
Iron ore 

„ Areas of . . 
., Chemical analyses ■ I 
Conglomerate of . . 
Cost of mining 
Depth Of 

derived from pynle 
,, Distribution of 

formed by replacement 

,, [mpuritii 

Iron-content of 

Metallurgical treatment of 

,, Minor occurrences of 

Miscellaneous occurrences oi 

Mode of formation of 
„ ochreous 

of Onakaka Block 

Origin of 
., of Pariwhakaoho Area 

Pipes of . . 

Quality of 

Quantity of 

of Tukurua Blo<l 

upland . . 
„ Utilisation of 










34. 37 



6,8, 16, 19,20 



35, 36 

.. 20, 51,52 

21, 46, 68, 71 

20,21, 22, 1)0-74 


.. 66,68,70 

us To 

.. 07. 71 », 72 


66 67,68 7n,71,72 

of . . 74 

66-67,68 Tii.71-72 

68 70 








4'.i. 55 



54. SS 


54,56, 75 ST. 102-1(13 



81, 83 



'. '. TT, 70, 102 






85, 80, 87 


S3. 84. SO 

79, 86 





76-79, 87 




82, 83, SO 





[r on- ore, volume ol 

,, of Washliourn Block 
„ Winning of 
[ron-oxides, hydrous 

Si i ulsii Iron-ore, limonite, gothite, tnrgite. 

Jimmy Creek, Auriferous quartz in . . 
Johnston's United Mine 

Discovery of 
Gold-production of . . 
,, Gossan of . . 

„ Secondary enrichment in 

,, Sulphide zone of 

Johnston's United to Red Hill Mineral Belt 
Ditto, Mines of 




87, 95 


Veins of 

Kaituna River 

,, Veins of 

Kakapo . . 

Ivaramea division 


95, L03 
95, 96. 103 




Mesas . . . . . . . . . . 25 

Metalliferous veins, &c. .. .. 2,89-101,103 

See also Quartz veins. 

Metallurgical treatment of gold-ore . . . . 17, 19 

,, iron-ore . . . . 88 

Metamorphism of rocks 21, 33, 37, 39, 46, 66, 67. 68, 72. 73 

Metasomatic action . . . . . . 95 

Mica-carbonate schists .. .. .. 39,42 

Micaceous quartzite . . . . . . 40 

Mica schist .. .. .. .. 41,42,44 

Mication . . . . . . . . 72 

Mineralised zones . . .. .. 89,90,100,103 


Lacustrine deposits 



Lake Clara 

Lake, Boulder 

Land, old 


Lapworth, C. 

Lash's Cave 



Lead Hill, Height of 

Lead Hill Boss 



Lightband Gully, Gold in . . 

Quart zose conglomerate at . . 
Lime .. .. .. 19,56,59, 

Limestone .. 38,49,50,52,53,55,57,60 

Limonite . . . . 56, 75, 78, 83, 84 

Line of metamorphism 
Literature, Lists of 

,, graptolitic 

Loganograpt-us octobrachiatus 


McCoy, F. 
McKay, Alexander 
McKenzie Creek, Gold in . . 

,, Bar, Gold at 

Magmas, igneous 
Magmatic differentiation 

Malone Creek, Gold in 
Manganese in iron-ore 
Maori Gully (Quartz Ranges), Gold in 

,, (tributary of Rocky River), Gold in 

Maori Terrace, Gold at 

Marcasite, green 
.Marine deposits 

Marlborough Lime and Cement Company 
Meadowland, alpine 

63, 64 

22, 26 

23, 24 

35, 36, 37 







69, 70 



61, 102, 104 

, 61, 88, 104 

,86,87, 102 





35. 36 

38. 52 



71,73. 101 



96, 100 






38, 104 







Mining, alluvial . . 

,, coal 

,, History of 

,, of iron-ore 

,, quartz 

,, System of gold 
Minor occurrences of iron-ore 
Miocene depression 
Miocene strata. -See Oamaru Series. 
Miscellaneous occurrences of iron-ore 

Modern coastal and flood plains 
Mollusca, Tertiary fossil 
Molluscoidea, Tertiary fossil 
Monocotyledonous plants 
Moonlight Flat, Auriferous terraces at 
Morainic debris 
Morning Star Mine 
Motupipi Cave 
,, River 
Mountain system 
Mountains — Brown Cow, Mount 

Harris Ridge, Mount Hardy, 

Paradise Peak, Parapara Peak, Pikikiruna 

Range, Mount Stephens, Wakamarama 

Range, Walker Ridge 
Mount Rinopai, Iron-ore on 

Muscovite granites 
„ schists. . 


Nelson Province, Settlement of 
Newer debris 

., Age of 

,, Auriferous leads of 

,, Cave deposits of 

,, Content of 

,, Distribution of 

,, Estuarine deposits of . . 

,, Fluviatile deposits of . . 

,, Lacustrine deposits of . . 

„ Talus and wind-blown sand of 

New Find Mine . . 
New Zealand Land Company 
New Zealand Paint Company 
Nuggets, gold 

19,56,57, 61 



17, 18. 19 



. 23, 27, 62 



20. 22, 32, 62. 6:3. 64, 65 

. . 20. 22, 32 


18, 93 





Lead Hill. 







63-64, 65 


64, 65 

63, 64 

89, 93 



15, 16, 53 

Oamaru Series 


Age of 

Distribution of 
Clays of 
Faults of 
Gold of 
Limestones of 
Coal of 

.. 20,49-61 



59,60,61, 104 


53, 103 

57-59, 61, 104 

55-57. 61, 104 


Oamaru Series, Conglomerates of 
,, Palaeontology of 




, 54, 55 


„ Petrology of 
„ Sandstones < . t 


55, 56 

,, Shales of 


,, Special areas ot 
,, Special economic 

features of . . 

52 60 

,, Structure of 


,, Unconformity of, 

with A 






Olilcr debris 



,64, 65 

„ Age of 


,, Villiferous leads ot 

64. 65 

,, 1 '< intent of 


Distribution of 


Morainie debris of 


Old Golden Ridge Mine 


Old land 


Oligoclase-orthoclase porphyries 
Onahaii Boas 

To. 7:! 

( Inakaka Block 


83, 102 

Iron-ore of 


Onakaka Stream . . ... 


Ophii Mine 
Ordovician beds 



17. l>r» 
90, K»l 

,, fossils 

34 37 

Ore - occurrence of the Pariwhakaoho 


\ alley 


i tre-ahoots. Sfe Paj -si bs, 

Ornamental stones 


Orogenic movements 


Outliers of OamarO Series . . 


< ratline ot geology 

20 22 

( tysters, fossil 


1 ' reek. ( k)ld m 


Paint -works 




mtologj ot Aorere gei lee 

34 3*3 

,, Oamaru Series 

51 62 



iara Inlet 


15,28, 19 

,, iron-ore 


18,75 *7 

,, Iron and Coal Syndicate 


,, i. Gold in . . 


,, River 


< told in 


,, ., Minor veins ot 

Km., L03 

Sluicing Company .. 15, 



„ ,, Water-race of 


,, subdivision. Area anil position of 

2. 102 

ira beds 


Pariwhakaoho area. Iron-ore of 




( •< cum act of copper in 

100, 103 

Park, James . . 20, 


52, 70,76 

Paturau River 


Payne's Bridge 




Pay-shoots . . 91, 


93, 94, u~ 



Per&everence Gold-mining Company 


Petrology of Aorere Series.. 

37 It 

Haupiri Series 

16 t7 

igneous rocks. . . . 66- us. 



Oamaru Series 

52 iui 

Phoenix Gold-mining Company 





88, 102 


11, l.t 

PhyUofrupttu typtu 


Physical geography 


Physiographic features 

;i. native . . . . . . ( 

Pig iron 
Pikikiruna lioss 

„ Range 

Plan of conducting work 
Plant-life (indigenous and introduced) 

„ Tropica] aspect of 
Plants, naturalised 
Plication of strata 
Plugs, igneous 
Pond .. 
Population. European 


Post and telegraph offices 
Pottery . . 

Pot~ " in iron-ore 
Prospecting . . . . 93 95, 97, 


Puponga, ( 'oal at. . 

Pvnte. Occurrence oi 77. 91, 95, 96, 07, 98 

< )\idation of 




ST. ss 

70, 73 

, 24, 49, 50 





54. 65 










60, 61, K)4 


00, 103, 104 

56, 61, 96 


99, loo. nil 

77. 70 



Quail, introduced 

QuartZ, Assays ot 

.. grits 
Quartzites, oherty 

Analj si s ot 
Quartz Ranges, < fold at 

Sluicing < Sompanj 
Veins of 

Quartz reins . . •_'. 17. is. 17. is. 8 g mi. 

Age ot 

Distribution oi 
Origin oi 
Special area - oi 

a, 95, 98 


39, 50, 51, 

17, 18, 

I l. 

clary enrichment of 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 
Quartz wash . . . _ - t !> 

s, , also Quartzose conglomerate, 
Quartzose conglomerate 19, 50, 52 55, 60, (>2. 83, 86, 



, 0'J 



, 66 



^ ater- 
Rainfall . . 

., tables 
Range of graptolites in tune 
Ranginaieta Bead 


Rei ions, economic, for work in Karamea 
Red deer 

Red Mill Mine .. 

Regional metamorphism. Set Dynamic meta 


B&miml of economic possibilities 
Richmond Mill area, Veins of 

., Mine 
Richmondite . . . . 95, 

Analysis of 

„ Aorere Rft cr 3} Btera 
( ■'olden Bay system 
Takaka River Bystem 
W' ( oast Bystem . . 
„ Volumes oi 

14, 15 

• 1 

6, 7 


26, 40. 50 



17. 96 

71. 7:; 


96, 103 

17, 96, 97 

96, 97, 101 


26 30 










Robin, native 


Knckville, Settlement of 



50, 104 

Rocky River 

15, 28 

„ Gold in 


„ Wins of 

99, 103 

Roches moiUonnees 



Salisbury Greek, Gold in . . 


Sand, wind-blown 



. . 


Sandhill Creek 



49, 50 


55, 56 

„ argillaceous 


„ arkositie 


„ ferruginous 


„ quartzites 


„ recrystallized 


Saw milling, Methods of 


Scarp, limestone 




Schists . . 


(a.) Biotite schists 


(6.) Muscovite schists . . 


(a) Graphite schists 


(d.) Chlorite schists 


(e.) Mica-carbonate schists 


(/. ) Arnphibolites 


Sea- beach 


Secondary enrichment . . 90, 



95, 101 

Sequence of formations 




Semi-basic igneous rocks 

20, 22 

, 63 

, 68-70 

Sericite schist 


Serpentine rocks . . 


67, 104 

„ „ Analyses of 


„ -chlorite schist 


Settlement of Nelson Province 


Settlements and townships 


Shafts, prospecting 


. 61. 96 

Shag (New Zealand) 



49, 52 


56, 57 


3, 5 

Shells .. 


Silica brick 





, 73, 78 

„ of carbonates 


73, 78 

Siliceous carbonates 



73, 78 


67, 68 


91, 95, 


97, 101 


31, 86 

Skey, W. 


Slate River 

15, 28 

,, Gold in 


„ and tributaries, Veins of 


„ Sluicing Company 


19, 65 

„ „ Water-race of 




Slaty Creek 



51, 92 

Sluicing, hydraulic 

16, 53 

Snail, land 




Snows River 

15, 28 

„ Gold in 


„ Veins of 

m, 103 



Soper Creek, Auriferous conglomerate o 


47. 48 

Special features of economic interest 




Spheroidal weathering 


Spring River 


Stanton Creek, Gold in 

15, 16 

Stick insects 



Strain, Effects of, in acid igneous rocks 72 

Streams. See Rivers, watercourses, &c. 



Structure, geological 

.. 22,34,50 

Stria', glacial 


Subalpine-plant zone 


Subsidence of land 




Sulphur-content of coals 

. . 56, 57, 88, 102, 104 

Survey, Plan of . . 







87, 90, 92, 93 

Synclinorial structure 


System of gold-mining 



Tables of rainfall . . 


„ of fossil species 


Taitapu Gold Estates 

.. 18,89,90 

„ Gold Estates Company . . . . 89 

,, Reef system, Extent of • . . . . 94 

Takaka Hydraulic Sluicing Company 1 J, 17, 19, 65 

,, ,, 

Water-race of 15 

„ River 

25, 29 

„ River system 


„ Township of 


„ Valley .. 

.. 25,29,49,50,55,57 

Takakau River 


Talc rocks 

2, 66, 67, 73, 104 

Talus .. 

.. 64,82,83 



Tata Islands 

26, 49, 57, 59 

Te Anau beds 


Tectonic movements 


Telephone offices . . 






Tertiary strata 

2, 49-61, 62-65 

See also Oamaru Series, 




Tetragraptus qiuidribrachiatus . . . . 35 



Thermal metamorphism 

46, 67, 72, 73 

Tide, Rise and fall of 


Timber .. 


,, industry . . 


„ trees 


Time distribution of graptolites . . 36 




.. 47,67,70 

Track from Bainham to Castles, Occurence of 

iron-ore on 


Tracks, pack and foot 


Trout, introduced 


,, mountain . . 


Tuffs .. 




Tukurua Block 

.. 75,82,102 

,, Iron- ore of 


Tukurua Point 

26, 88 

„ Stream . . 





.. 75,83,102 


Ultra- basic igneous rocks .. .. 20,22,66-68,73 

Age of .. .. 66 

„ Distribution of . . 66 

„ Petrology of . . 66-68 

Unconformity of strata .. 20,21,34,45,49,50,51,55 

Uplands . . . . . . 24 

Upland terraces, Vegetation of . . 4 


Uplift of strata 
Uralitic porphyrite 
Utilisation "of iron-ore 

Valley of Aorere River 
„ Takaka River 
Veins, quartz, Age and origin of 
Distribution of 
Nature of . . 
of Boulder River 
in vicinity of Golden Ridge 
of Johnston's United to Roil Hill 

mineral belt 
of the Kaituna Ranges 

Little Boulder Rivei 
Parapara River, minor . 
Quartz Ranges 
Richmond Hill area 
Slate River and its trilni 
Veins, metalliferous 

See also Veins. 
Victoria Creek, Gold in 
Volcanic rocks 
Volumes of rivers. . 



Waikoromumu River, Gold in 
Waikouaiti beds . . 
Waingaro River . . 
VVaitapu Hill 

Port of . . 
„ Survey District, Area of 
Wakamarama Range 
Wakefield Gully, Occurrence of iron-on- in 

21, 22 


I 2, 24, 27 

•_'."., 29 





89 94 

'.It 96 

<M), 100 


'.lit. 100 

96 !)7 

97 !l!t 



li,S. (lit 



IT). 29 






2 1. .".It 



Walker Ridge 


Wanganui Inlet 


Washbourn Block 

75, 102 

„ Iron-ore of 


„ Analyses of iron-ore in 


„ Quality of iron-ore in 


Washbourn, Edward 


Washbourn, H. P. 

. 17,18,104 

Washbourn's Reef 


Wash, quartz 

52, 56 





See nlso Rivers. 

Water-power . . . . 1 

5,29,30, 102 

,, from Parapara River . . 



x4. 15 

Water-race of Collingwood Goldfields Company 14 

of Parapara Hydraulic Sluicing 



,, to Perseverance Mine ' . . 


to Red Hill Claim 


of Slate River Sluicing Company 


„ of Takaka Sluicing Company 


I . . 


Weathering of acid igneous rocks 


„ spheroidal rocks 


„ carbonate rocks 


Weka .. 


West Coast, Streams draining to 




Wharf .. 


Wind-blown sand 


Wren, native 



Zoisite, Occurrence of 

42, 09 

Zones,' mineralised 90, 

100, 101, 103 

By Authority : Ions MaCKAY, Government Printer. Wellington — 1907 

691+7 9? 

University of